Due to its longevity and prevalence in the region, Achaemenid rulers would come to adopt it as a "diplomatic language". 13 The modern Aramaic alphabet rapidly spread east to the kingdom of Nabataea, then to sinai and the Arabian Peninsula, eventually making its way to Africa. Aramaic merchants carried older variations of the language as far as India, where it later influenced the development of Brahmi scripture. It also led to the developments of Arabic, pahlavi (an Iranian adaptation "as well as for a range of alphabets used by early turkish and Mongol tribes in Siberia, mongolia and Turkestan ". 14 Literacy at this period spread with the merchant classes and may have grown to number 15-20 of the total population. The Aramaic language would die out with the spread of Islam and with it, its influence of Arabic. Ancient and post-classical literacy edit further information: Latin alphabet Until recently it was thought that the majority of people were illiterate in ancient times.
Java - writing to, response, outputStream while reading
Eighth century bce, epigraphical comparisons to wallpaper Proto-canaanite suggest that the Greeks may have adopted the consonantal alphabet as early as 1100 bce, and later "added in five characters to represent vowels". 11 Phoenician, which is considered to contain the first "linear alphabet", rapidly spread to the mediterranean port cities in northern Canaan. 10 Some archeologists believe that Phoenician scripture had some influence on resume the developments of the hebrew and Aramaic alphabets based on the fact that these languages evolved during the same time period, share similar features, and are commonly categorized into the same language group. 12 When the Israelites migrated to canaan between 12 bce, they also adopted a variation of the canaanite alphabet. Baruch ben Neriah, jeremiah's scribe, used this alphabet to create the later scripts of the Old Testament. The early hebrew alphabet was prominent in the mediterranean region until Chaldean Babylonian rulers exiled the jews to babylon in the sixth century bce. It was then that the new script Square hebrew emerged and the older one rapidly died out. 11 The Aramaic alphabet also emerged sometime between 12 bce. As the Bronze age collapsed, the Aramaeans moved into canaan and Phoenician territories and adopted their scripts. Although early evidence of this writing is scarce, archeologists have uncovered a wide range of later Aramaic texts, written as early as the seventh century bce.
According to Frank moore Cross, these inscriptions consisted of alphabetic signs that originated during the transitional development from pictographic script to a linear alphabet. Moreover, he asserts, "These inscriptions also provided clues diary to extend the decipherment of earlier and later alphabetic texts". 10 The consonantal system of the canaanite script inspired alphabetical developments in subsequent systems. During the late Bronze age, successor alphabets appeared throughout the mediterranean region and were employed for Phoenician, hebrew and Aramaic. According to goody, these cuneiform scripts may have influenced the development of the Greek alphabet several centuries later. Historically, the Greeks contended that their writing system was modeled after the Phoenicians. However, many semitic scholars now believe that Ancient Greek is more consistent with an early form Canaanite that was used. While the earliest Greek inscriptions are dated.
9 Thus, many scholars argue that the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of northern Canaan (modern-day syria ) invented the consonantal alphabet as early as 1500 bce. Much of this theory's development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petrie, who, in 1905, came across a series of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem. Ten years later, English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the canaanite goddess Asherah. In 1948, william. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence that had been discovered subsequent to goody's findings. This included a series of inscriptions from Ugarit, discovered in 1929 by French archaeologist Claude. Some of these inscriptions were mythological texts (written in an early canaanite dialect) that consisted of a 32-letter cuneiform consonantal alphabet. Another significant discovery was made in 1953 when three arrowheads were uncovered, each containing identical Canaanite inscriptions from twelfth century bce.
Activities The curriculum Corner
The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values. Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 bce. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems. The earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 bce. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite.
These oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals. These examples indicate that early acts of literacy were closely tied to power and chiefly used for management practices, and probably less than 1 of the population was literate, as duties it was confined to a very small ruling elite. Origins of the alphabet edit According to social anthropologist Jack goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet. Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system (c. 750 bce) that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels. But goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones that had been developed earlier in Western Asia".
The key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text. Reading development involves a range of complex language underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds ( phonology spelling patterns ( orthography word meaning ( semantics grammar ( syntax ) and patterns of word formation ( morphology all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency. Once these skills are acquired, the reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to apply to printed material critical analysis, inference and synthesis; to write with accuracy and coherence; and to use information and insights from text as the basis for informed. 3, the inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism. 4, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (. Unesco ) defines literacy as the "ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts.
Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society". 5, contents, history edit, see also: History of writing and History of education Illiteracy rate in France in the 18th and 19th centuries Prehistoric literacy edit Origins of literacy edit literacy is thought to have first emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices. Script developed independently at least four times in human history in Mesopotamia, egypt, lowland Mesoamerica, and China. 6 Bill of sale of a male slave and a building in Shuruppak, sumerian tablet, circa 2600 bc the earliest forms of written communication originated in Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about bce. During this era, literacy was "a largely functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production". 7 Writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural production. 8 The token system served as a precursor to early cuneiform writing once people began recording information on clay tablets. Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but also ideograms depicting objects being counted. 6 Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from bce and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites.
Definition and Examples of peer
World Factbook ) Grey no data, world illiteracy halved between. Brain areas involved in literacy acquisition. Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and barbing write. 1, the modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant essays symbol systems of a culture. 2, the concept of literacy is expanding. Oecd countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. 2, a person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would also be regarded by the locals as being illiterate.
They come to understand other perspectives and cultures. Students appreciate that the twenty-first-century classroom and workplace are settings in which people from often widely divergent cultures and who represent diverse experiences and perspectives must learn and work together. Students actively seek to understand other perspectives and cultures through reading and listening, and they are able to communicate effectively with people of varied backgrounds. They evaluate other points of view critically and constructively. Through reading great classic and contemporary works of literature learn representative of a variety of periods, cultures, and worldviews, students can vicariously inhabit worlds and have experiences much different than their own. "Reading and writing" redirects here. For the journal, see. Reading and Writing (journal). World map indicating literacy rate by country in 2015 (2015 cia.
precisely what an author or speaker is saying, but they also question an authors or speakers assumptions and premises and assess the veracity of claims and the soundness of reasoning. Students cite specific evidence when offering an oral or written interpretation of a text. They use relevant evidence when supporting their own points in writing and speaking, making their reasoning clear to the reader or listener, and they constructively evaluate others use of evidence. They use technology and digital media strategically and capably. Students employ technology thoughtfully to enhance their reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language use. They tailor their searches online to acquire useful information efficiently, and they integrate what they learn using technology with what they learn offline. They are familiar with the strengths and limitations of various technological tools and mediums and can select and use those best suited to their communication goals.
They build strong content knowledge. Students establish a base of knowledge across a wide range of subject matter by engaging with works of quality and substance. They writing become proficient in new areas through research and study. They read purposefully and listen attentively to gain both general knowledge and discipline-specific expertise. They refine and share their knowledge through writing and speaking. They respond to the varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and discipline. Students adapt their communication in relation to audience, task, purpose, and discipline. They set and adjust purpose for reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language use as warranted by the task. They appreciate nuances, such as how the composition of an audience should affect tone when speaking and how the connotations of words affect meaning.
Template: Writing, personal, response
Welcome guest, the lancashire Grid for learning provides a variety of educational resources, content and listing managed services to support schools in maximising the benefits of technology to support teaching and learning. If you have any feedback regarding our resources, content or services, please contact. The descriptions that follow are not standards themselves but instead offer a portrait of students who meet the standards set out in this document. As students advance through the grades and master the standards in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language, they are able to exhibit with increasing fullness and regularity these capacities of the literate individual. Students can, without significant scaffolding, comprehend and evaluate complex texts across a range of types and disciplines, and they can construct effective arguments and convey intricate or multifaceted information. Likewise, students are able independently to discern a speakers key points, request clarification, and ask relevant questions. They build on others ideas, articulate their own ideas, and confirm they have been understood. Without prompting, they demonstrate command of standard English and acquire and use a wide-ranging vocabulary. More broadly, they become self-directed learners, effectively seeking out and using resources to assist them, including teachers, peers, and print and digital reference materials.