Gobineau's 1847 novel Ternove was the first time that Gobineau linked class with race, writing "Monsieur de marvejols would think of himself, and of all members of the nobility, as of a race apart, of a superior essence, and he believed it criminal to sully. The novel, set against the backdrop of the hundred days of 1815, concerns the disastrous results when the aristocrat Octave de ternove unwisely marries the daughter of a miller. Gobineau was horrified by the revolution of 1848 and disgusted by what he saw as the supine reaction of the european upper classes to the revolutionary challenge, writing in the spring of 1848 about the news from Germany: "Things are going pretty badly. Their cowardice and lack of political faith make them scarcely interesting. But the peasants, there they are nearly barbarous. There is pillage, and burning, and massacre—and we are only at the beginning". As a legitimist, gobineau disliked the house of Bonaparte, and was displeased when louis-Napoleon Bonaparte was elected president of the republic in 1848. However, gobineau came to support Bonaparte as the best man to preserve order, and in 1849, when Tocqueville became foreign Minister, his friend Gobineau became his chef de cabinet.
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Writing about the economic collapse caused by the panic of 1837, gobineau wrote: "There real estate gives only chimerical guarantees, thanks to the frantic land speculation. One recollects the position of the banks, and the depreciation of the paper money; and one must dwell on the difficulties of the local authorities, the incurable weakness of law enforcement, the impudence of those who are subject to its administration, and the impotence. In fahrenheit an 1845 essay written as a public letter to an imaginary bavarian farmer thinking of immigrating to the United States for a better life, gobineau implored him not to go, predicting that he would be impoverished, robbed and exploited in America, and advised him. Gobineau was in general hostile towards people in the Americas, writing that who in the Old World does not know "that the new World knows nothing of kings, princes and nobles?-that on those semi-virgin lands, in human societies born yesterday and scarcely yet consolidated,. Tocqueville praised Gobineau in a letter: "you have wide knowledge, much intelligence, and the best of manners". The latter man gave gobineau an appointment in the quai d'Orsay (the French foreign ministry) while serving as foreign minister during the second Republic of France. 42 Reflecting his lifelong interest in the Orient, in 1852, gobineau joined the société Asiatique, and got to know several French Orientalists like julius von Mohl very well. In 1846, writers gobineau married Clémence gabrielle monnerot, who had pressed for a hasty marriage as she was pregnant by their mutual friend Hercule de serre who had abandoned her and as a good Catholic she did not wish to give birth to an illegitimate child. Monnerot had been born in Martinique, and Gobineau was never quite entirely certain if his wife, and hence his two daughters had black ancestors or not, as it was a common practice for French slave masters in the caribbean to take a slave mistress. Gobineau's opposition to slavery, which he held always resulted in harmful miscegenation to whites, stemmed from his own personal anxieties about the possibility that his mother or his wife might have had African ancestry. The embittered royalist edit gobineau's novels and poems of the 1830s40s were usually set in the middle Ages or the renaissance with aristocratic heroes who by their very existence uphold all of the values worth celebrating such as honor and creativity against a corrupt, soulless.
That it was inevitable that such a multi-ethnic society would go into decline while the "purely german" Prussia was destined to unify germany. At the same time, gobineau observed that millions of Germans were immigrating to the United States every year, which he described an attempt to escape from " a homeland that is treacherously parcelled out and timidly oppressed" by a "bogus aristocracy" and the "cult. Gobineau was likewise pessimistic about the Italian states, writing about Italy: "Shortly after the condottieri disappeared everything that had lived and flourished with them went too; wealth, gallantry, art and liberty, there remained nothing but a fertile land and an incomparable sky". About Spain, gobineau denounced a nation which had rejected "a roles firm and natural authority, a power rooted in national liberty predicting that without order imposed by an absolute monarchy, spain was destined to sink into a state of perpetual revolution. He was dismissive of Latin America, writing with references to the wars of independence: "The destruction of their agriculture, trade and finances, the inevitable consequence of long civil disorder, did not at all seem to them a price too high to pay for what they. And yet who would want to claim that the half-barbarous inhabitants of Castile or the Algarve or the gauchos on the river Plate really deserve to sit as supreme legislators, in the places which they have contested against their masters with such pleasure and energy". About the United States, gobineau wrote: "The only greatness is that of wealth, and as everyone can acquire this, its ownership is independent of any of the qualities reserved to superior natures". Gobineau wrote the United States lacked an aristocracy with no sense of noblesse oblige as existed in Europe, the American poor suffered worse than the european poor, causing the United States to be a violent society, where greed and materialism were the only values that.
On international politics edit gobineau's writings on international politics were as generally pessimistic as his writings on France. Gobineau depicted Britain as a nation motivated entirely by hatred and greed and the domination of the British Empire around the globe as a source of regret. Gobineau often attacked King louis-Phillipe for his pro-British foreign policy, writing that louis-Phillipe had "humiliated" France by allowing the British empire to become the world's dominant power. However, reports of the impoverishment of Ireland were a source of satisfaction for Gobineau as he asserted: "It is Ireland which is pushing England into the abyss of revolution". The growing power and aggressiveness of Russia, as Gobineau saw it, was a cause for concern for him as he regarded the disaster suffered by the British during the retreat from Kabul in the first war with Afghanistan in 1842 as sign that Russia would. Russia, a youthful nation, is following its path towards the power that it must surely gain The empire of the Tsars is today the power which seems to have the greatest future The russian people are marching steadfastly towards a goal that is indeed known. Gobineau regarded Russia as an Asian power, and viewed what he saw as the inevitable coming triumph of Russia as a triumph of Asia over Europe. Gobineau had mixed feelings about the german states, praising Prussia as a conservative society dominated by the junkers while on the other hand worrying that increasing economic growth promoted by the zollverein was making the Prussian middle class more powerful. Gobineau was critical of the austrian Empire, writing the house of Habsburg ruled over such a mixed population of ethnic Germans, magyars, Italians, Slavic peoples, etc.
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From louis-Philippe we shall proceed to the first trimmer who will take us up, but only in order to pass us on to another. For we are without fibre and moral energy. Money has killed everything (emphasis in the original. Breakthrough with the kapodistrias article edit In 1841, gobineau scored his first major success when an article he submitted to revue des deux Mondes was published on Gobineau's article was about the Greek statesman count ioannis Kapodistrias. At the time, la revue des deux Mondes was one of the most prestigious journals in Paris, and being published in la revue des deux Mondes put Gobineau in the same company as george sand, théophile essay gautier, philarète Chasles, alphonse de lamartine, edgar quinet and. Gobineau's article had been secretly commissioned by ioannis Kolettis, the Greek minister in Paris and a political enemy of Kapodistrias who was Gobineau's main source of information, which goes a long way towards explaining Gobineau's hostile picture of Kapodistrias. Kolettis, a schemer known as "half lion, half fox had started out as a doctor to the warlord Ali pasha of ioannina, had been a leader in the Greek war of independence and in the hellenic kingdom had emerged as one of the leaders.
At the time, kapodistrias was well regarded in France, and Gobineau's article, which was extremely derogatory towards him, caused in sainte-beuve's words "much anger" among French liberals. Kapodistrias, a corfiot nobleman who had become the russian Foreign Minister and finally the first president of Greece, was well remembered in France for the pro-French policies he advocated at the congress of vienna, as a liberal influence at the court of the Emperor Alexander. For all these reasons many French liberals were upset at Gobineau's negative picture of Kapodistrias. Gobineau hated Russia, and he portrayed Kapodistrias as a ruthless intriguer who was working to have russia conquer all of the balkans, portraying the Greek war of independence as a part of a russian plot to weaken the Ottoman Empire. Finally, gobineau argued that Kapodistrias, blinded by ambition, had attempted to use the cause of Greek independence to make himself master of the balkans, becoming a tyrant who had been rightfully assassinated in 1831.
As a part-time employee of the post Office and a full-time writer, gobineau was desperately poor, which, for someone who liked to imagine himself as an aristocrat living in luxury in a château in the countryside was very humiliating. Gobineau's own family background made him a supporter of the house of bourbon, but the nature of the legitimist movement dominated by factious and inept leaders drove gobineau to despair, leading him to write: "we are lost and had better resign ourselves to the fact". In a letter to his father, gobineau complained of "the laxity, the weakness, the foolishness and—in a word—the pure folly of my cherished party". Gobineau sent a copy of his poem jean Chouan to henri, comte de Chambord, the self-proclaimed "Henri V" as the bourbon pretender to the throne styled himself, for which he was thanked by the comte as he wrote back expressing his gratitude for "your honorable. Privately, gobineau was worried that if the house of bourbon should be restored, that Henri and his followers were all so stupid that it was inevitable that the bourbons would be toppled by a revolution for a third time. At the same time, gobineau regarded French society under the house of Orleans as corrupt and self-serving, dominated by the "oppressive feudalism of money" as opposed to the feudalism of "charity, courage, virtue and intelligence" held by the ancien-regime nobility.
Gobineau wrote about July monarchy France: "Money has become the principle of power and honour. Money dominates business; money regulates the population; money governs; money salves consciences; money is the criterion for judging the esteem due to men". In this "age of national mediocrity" as Gobineau described it, with society going in a direction he disapproved of, the leaders of the cause to which he was committed being by his own admission foolish and incompetent and the would-be aristocrat struggling to make ends. Gobineau wrote in a letter to his father: "How I despair of a society which is no longer anything, except in spirit, and which has no heart left". Gobineau complained that the legitimists spent their time feuding with one another while the catholic Church "is going over to the side of the revolution". Gobineau wrote: "Our poor country lies in Roman decadence. Where there is no longer an aristocracy worthy of itself, a nation dies. Our Nobles are conceited fools and cowards. I no longer believe in anything nor have any views.
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In September 1835, gobineau left for Paris with just fifty francs in his pocket. With the aim of becoming a writer. He moved in with an uncle, thibaut-Joseph de gobineau, a legitimist with an "unlimited" hatred of louis-Philippe. Reflecting his tendency towards elitism, gobineau founded a society of Legitimist intellectuals called Les Scelti the elect which included himself, the painter guermann Bohn (German von Bohn) and the writer Maxime du camp. Early writings edit In the later with years pdf of the july monarchy, gobineau made his living writing serialized fiction ( romans-feuilletons ) and contributing to reactionary periodicals. Gobineau wrote for the Union Catholique, la"dienne, l'unité, and revue de paris. At one point in the early 1840s, gobineau was writing an article every day for la"dienne to support himself. As a writer and journalist, he struggled financially, and was forever looking for a wealthy patron willing to support him.
In 1831, de gobineau's father took custody of his three children, and his son spent the rest of his adolescence in Lorient, in Brittany. Gobineau disliked his father, whom he dismissed as a boring and pedantic Army officer incapable of stimulating thought. Lorient had been founded in 1675 as a base for the French East India company as King louis xiv had grand ambitions for making maker France into the dominant political and economic power in Asia. As those ambitions were not realized, de gobineau developed a sense of faded glory as he grew up in a city that had been built to be the dominant hub for Europe's trade with Asia, a dream that had not been realized, as India became. As a young man, gobineau was fascinated with the Orient, as the middle east was known in Europe in the 19th century (it was only with World War ii that East Asia became the Orient and the term Middle east started to be used for. While studying at the collège de bironne in Switzerland, a fellow student recalled: "All of his aspirations were towards the east. He dreamt only of mosques and minarets; he called himself a muslim, ready to make the pilgrimage to mecca". Gobineau loved "Oriental" tales like those by the French writer Antoine galland, often stated he wanted to become an Orientalist, and so read Arab, turkish and Persian tales in translation, becoming what the French call " un orientaliste de pacotille (rubbish orientalist. In 1835, gobineau failed the entrance exams to the.
royal guard of King louis. Despite expectations, the pay for a royal guardsman was very low, and the de gobineau family struggled on his salary. Magdeleine de gobineau abandoned her husband for her children's tutor Charles de la coindière and together with her lover took her son and two daughters on extended wanderings across eastern France, switzerland and the Grand Duchy of Baden. To support herself, she turned to fraud (for which she was imprisoned making his mother into a severe embarrassment to gobineau, who never spoke to her after he turned twenty. For the young Gobineau, committed to upholding traditional aristocratic and Catholic values, the disintegration of his parents' marriage, his mother's open relationship with her lover coindière together with her turn to fraud, and the turmoil imposed by constantly being on the run and living. Adolescence edit gobineau spent the early part of his teenage years in the town of Inzligen where his mother and her lover were staying, during which time he became fluent in German. As a staunch supporter of the house of bourbon, louis de gobineau was forced to retire from the royal guard after the july revolution of 1830 brought to power King louis-Philippe, le roi citoyen the "Citizen King who promised to reconcile the heritage of the. Given his family's history of supporting the bourbons, the young Gobineau regarded the july revolution as a disaster for France. As a young man, gobineau's views were those of a legitimist committed to a catholic France ruled over by the house of bourbon.
Cuza, and leaders of the, nazi party, who later edited and re-published his work. Contents Life and theories edit Origins edit gobineau came from an old well-established aristocratic family. 1 His father, louis (17841858 was a military officer and staunch royalist, 2 and his mother, Anne-louise magdeleine de gercy, was the daughter of a non-noble royal tax official. The de gercy family had lived in the French Crown colony of saint-Domingue (modern haiti) for a time in the 18th century, and Gobineau was always obsessed with the fear he might have had black ancestry on his mother's side. Reflecting his hatred of the French revolution, gobineau later wrote: "My birthday is July 14th, the date on which the bastille was captured-which goes to prove how opposites may come together". As a boy and young man, gobineau loved the middle Ages, which he saw as a golden age of chivalry and knighthood that was much preferable to his own time. A person who knew Gobineau as a teenager described him as a romantic, "already an Amadis with chivalrous ideas and a heroic spirit, dreaming of what most noble and most grand". Gobineau's father was very committed to restoring the house of bourbon and helped the polignac brothers escape from France. As punishment, louis de gobineau was imprisoned by napoleon's secret police and was freed parts when the Allies took paris in 1814.
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Count, joseph Arthur de gobineau ( ) was. French aristocrat who is best known today for helping to legitimise racism by use of scientific racist theory and assignment "racial demography" and for his developing the theory of the. Known to his contemporaries as a novelist, diplomat and travel writer, gobineau was an elitist who, in the immediate aftermath of the. Revolutions of 1848, wrote a 1400-page book, an Essay on the Inequality of the human Races, in which he claimed that aristocrats were superior to commoners and that they possessed more Aryan genetic traits because of less interbreeding with inferior races (. Alpines and, mediterraneans ). Gobineau's writings were quickly praised by white supremacist, pro-slavery, americans like, josiah. Nott and, henry hotze, who translated his book into English but omitted around 1000 pages of the original book, including those parts that negatively described Americans as a racially mixed population. Gobineau's writings were also influential on prominent anti-semites such as, richard Wagner, wagner's son-in-law. Houston Stewart Chamberlain, the romanian politician professor,.