The American literary critic and feminist Elaine Showalter describes the phased development of feminist theory. The first she calls "feminist critique in which the feminist reader examines the ideologies behind literary phenomena. The second Showalter calls "gynocriticism in which the "woman is producer of textual meaning" including "the psychodynamics of female creativity; linguistics and the problem of a female language; the trajectory of the individual or collective female literary career and literary history." The last phase she. The scholar Toril moi criticized this model, seeing it as an essentialist and deterministic model for female subjectivity that fails to account for the situation of women outside the west. Movements and ideologies, several submovements of feminist ideology have developed over the years; some of the major subtypes are listed below. These movements often overlap, and some feminists identify themselves with several types of feminist thought. Anarcha-feminism (also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism) combines anarchism with feminism.
Feminism - friesian School
Its writings tend to be effusive and metaphorical, being less concerned with political doctrine and generally focused on theories of "the body." The term includes writers who are not French, but who have worked substantially in France and the French tradition such resume as Julia kristeva. In the 1970s French feminists approached feminism with the concept of ecriture feminine, which translates as female, or feminine writing. Helene cixous argues that writing and philosophy are phallocentric and along with other French feminists such as Luce Irigaray emphasizes "writing from the body" as a subversive exercise. The work of the feminist psychoanalyst and philosopher, julia kristeva, has influenced feminist theory in general and feminist literary criticism in particular. From the 1980s onwards the work of artist and psychoanalyst Bracha Ettinger has influenced literary criticism, art history and film theory. However, as the scholar Elizabeth Wright pointed out, "none of these French feminists align themselves with the feminist movement as it appeared in the Anglophone world. Theoretical schools, feminist theory is an extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical fields. It encompasses work in a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, sociology, economics, women's studies, literary criticism, art history, psychoanalysis and philosophy. Feminist theory aims to understand gender inequality and focuses on gender politics, power relations and sexuality. While providing a critique of these social and political relations, much of feminist theory focuses on the promotion of women's rights and interests. Themes explored in feminist theory include discrimination, stereotyping, objectification (especially sexual objectification oppression and patriarchy.
According to her, this type of backlash is a historical trend, recurring when it appears that women have made substantial gains in their efforts to obtain equal rights. Angela McRobbie argues that adding the prefix post to feminism undermines revelation the strides that feminism has made in achieving equality for everyone, including women. Post-feminism gives the impression that equality has been achieved and that feminists can now focus on something else entirely. McRobbie believes that post-feminism is most clearly seen on so-called feminist media products, such as Bridget Jones's diary, sex and the city, and Ally McBeal. Female characters like bridget Jones and Carrie bradshaw claim to be liberated and clearly enjoy their sexuality, but what they are constantly searching for is the one man who will make everything worthwhile. French feminism, french feminism refers to a branch of feminist thought from a group of feminists in France from the 1970s to the 1990s. French feminism, compared to Anglophone feminism, is distinguished by an approach which is more philosophical and literary.
Amelia jones wrote that the post-feminist texts which emerged in the 1980s and 1990s portrayed second-wave feminism as a monolithic entity and criticized it using generalizations. One of the earliest uses of the term was in Susan Bolotin's 1982 article "Voices of the post-Feminist Generation published in New York times Magazine. This article was based on a number of interviews with women who largely agreed with the goals of feminism, but did not identify as feminists. Some contemporary feminists, such as Katha pollitt or Nadine Strossen, consider feminism to hold simply that "women are people". Views that separate the sexes rather plan than unite them are considered by these writers to be sexist rather than feminist'.'. In her book backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women, susan Faludi argues that a backlash against second wave feminism in the 1980s has successfully re-defined feminism through its terms. She argues that it constructed the women's liberation movement as the source of many of the problems alleged to be plaguing women in the late 1980s. She also argues that many of these problems are illusory, constructed by the media without reliable evidence.
The third wave has its origins in the mid-1980s. Feminist leaders rooted in the second wave like gloria anzaldua, bell hooks, Chela sandoval, Cherrie moraga, audre lorde, maxine hong Kingston, and many other black feminists, sought to negotiate a space within feminist thought for consideration of race-related subjectivities. Third-wave feminism also contains internal debates between difference feminists such as the psychologist Carol Gilligan (who believes that there are important differences between the sexes) and those who believe that there are no inherent differences between the sexes and contend that gender roles are due. Post-feminism, post-feminism describes a range of viewpoints reacting to feminism. While not being "anti-feminist post-feminists believe that women have achieved second wave goals while being critical of third wave feminist goals. The term was first used in the 1980s to describe a backlash against second-wave feminism. It is now a label for a wide range of theories that take critical approaches to previous feminist discourses and includes challenges to the second wave's ideas. Other post-feminists say that feminism is no longer relevant to today's society.
Feminism in the United States - wikipedia
Friedan specifically locates this system among post-World War ii middle-class suburban communities. At the same time, bartender america's post-war economic boom had led to the development of new technologies that were supposed to make household work less difficult, but that often had the result of making women's work less meaningful and valuable. Women's Liberation in the usa, the phrase "Womens Liberation" was first used in the United States in 1964 and first appeared in print in 1966. By 1968, although simple the term Womens Liberation Front appeared in the magazine ramparts, it was starting to refer to the whole womens movement. Bra-burning also became associated with the movement, though the actual prevalence of bra-burning is debatable.
One of the most vocal critics of the women's liberation movement has been the African American feminist and intellectual Gloria jean Watkins (who uses the pseudonym "bell hooks who argues that this movement glossed over race and class and thus failed to address "the issues. Third-wave feminism began in the early 1990s, arising as a response to perceived failures of the second wave and also as a response to the backlash against initiatives and movements created by the second wave. Third-wave feminism seeks to challenge or avoid what it deems the second wave's essentialist definitions of femininity, which (according to them) over-emphasize the experiences of upper middle-class white women. A post-structuralist interpretation of gender and sexuality is central to much of the third wave's ideology. Third-wave feminists often focus on "micro-politics" and challenge the second wave's paradigm as to what is, or is not, good for females.
Second-wave feminists saw women's cultural and political inequalities as inextricably linked and encouraged women to understand aspects of their personal lives as deeply politicized and as reflecting sexist power structures. Simone de beauvoir and The second Sex. The French author and philosopher Simone de beauvoir wrote novels; monographs on philosophy, politics, and social issues; essays; biographies; and an autobiography. She is now best known for her metaphysical novels, including She came to Stay and The mandarins, and for her treatise The second Sex, a detailed analysis of women's oppression and a foundational tract of contemporary feminism. Written in 1949, its English translation was published in 1953.
It sets out a feminist existentialism which prescribes a moral revolution. As an existentialist, she accepted jean-paul Sartre's precept existence precedes essence; hence "one is not born a woman, but becomes one." Her analysis focuses on the social construction of Woman as the Other. This de beauvoir identifies as fundamental to women's oppression. She argues women have historically been considered deviant and abnormal and contends that even Mary wollstonecraft considered men to be the ideal toward which women should aspire. De beauvoir argues that for feminism to move forward, this attitude must be set aside. The feminine mystique, betty Friedan's The feminine mystique (1963) criticized the idea that women could only find fulfillment through childrearing and homemaking. According to Friedan's obituary in the The new York times, The feminine mystique ignited the contemporary women's movement in 1963 and as a result permanently transformed the social fabric of the United States and countries around the world and is widely regarded as one. In the book friedan hypothesizes that women are victims of a false belief system that requires them to find identity and meaning in their lives through their husbands and children. Such a system causes women to completely lose their identity in that of their family.
Mary wollstonecraft - philosopher, journalist, Activist
Some, such as real Frances Willard, belonged to conservative christian groups such as the woman's Christian Temperance Union. Others, such as Matilda joslyn Gage, were more radical, and expressed themselves within the national Woman Suffrage Association or individually. American first-wave feminism is considered to have ended with the passage of the nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (1919 granting women the right to vote in all states. The term first wave was coined retrospectively after the term second-wave feminism began to be used to describe a newer feminist movement that focused as much on fighting social and cultural inequalities as political inequalities. Second wave, second-wave feminism refers to the period of activity in the early 1960s and lasting through the late 1980s. The scholar Imelda Whelehan suggests that the second wave was a continuation of the earlier phase of feminism involving the suffragettes in the uk and usa. Second-wave feminism has continued to exist since that time and coexists with what is termed third-wave feminism. The scholar Estelle Freedman compares first and second-wave feminism saying that the first wave focused on rights such as suffrage, whereas the second wave was largely concerned with other issues of equality, such as ending discrimination. The feminist activist and author Carol Hanisch coined the slogan "The personal is Political" which became synonymous with the second wave.
Yet, feminists such as Voltairine de Cleyre and Margaret Sanger were still active in campaigning for women's sexual, reproductive, and economic rights at this time. In 1854, Florence nightingale established female nurses as adjuncts to the military. In Britain the suffragettes and, possibly more effectively, the suffragists campaigned for the women's vote. In 1918 the representation of the people Act 1918 was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned houses. In 1928 this was extended to all women over twenty-one. In the United States, leaders of this movement included Lucretia mott, lucy Stone, elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan. Anthony, who each kite campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote; all were strongly influenced by quaker thought. American first-wave feminism involved a wide range of women.
15th century. Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa and Modesta di pozzo di forzi worked in the 16th century. Marie le jars de gournay, anne Bradstreet and Francois poullain de la barre wrote during the 17th. Feminists and scholars have divided the movement's history into three "waves". The first wave refers mainly to women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (mainly concerned with women's right to vote). The second wave refers to the ideas and actions associated with the women's liberation movement beginning in the 1960s (which campaigned for legal and social rights for women). The third wave refers to a continuation of, and a reaction to the perceived failures of, second-wave feminism, beginning in the 1990s. First-wave feminism refers to an extended period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States. Originally it focused on the promotion of equal contract and property rights for women and the opposition to chattel marriage and ownership of married women (and their children) by their husbands. However, by the end of the nineteenth century, activism focused primarily on gaining political power, particularly the right of women's suffrage.
Feminist activists have campaigned for women's legal rights (rights of contract, property rights, voting rights for women's right to bodily integrity and autonomy, for abortion rights, and for reproductive rights (including access to contraception and quality prenatal care for protection of women and girls from. During much of its history, most feminist movements and theories had leaders who were predominantly middle-class white women from Western Europe and North America. However, at least since sojourner Truth's 1851 speech to American feminists, women of other races have proposed alternative feminisms. This trend accelerated in the 1960s with the civil Rights movement in the United States and the collapse of European colonialism in Africa, the caribbean, parts of Latin America and southeast Asia. Since that time, women in former European colonies and the Third World have proposed "Post-colonial" and "Third World" feminisms. Some postcolonial book Feminists, such as Chandra talpade mohanty, are critical of Western feminism for being ethnocentric. Black feminists, such as Angela davis and Alice walker, share this view.
History Of Gender Inequality In movies Film Studies Essay
History and theory of feminism, the term feminism can be used to describe a political, cultural or economic movement aimed at establishing equal rights and legal protection for women. Feminism involves political and sociological theories and philosophies concerned with issues of gender reviews difference, as well as a movement that advocates gender equality for women and campaigns for women's rights and interests. Although the terms "feminism" and "feminist" did not gain widespread use until the 1970s, they were already being used in the public parlance much earlier; for instance, katherine hepburn speaks of the "feminist movement" in the 1942 film Woman of the year. According to maggie humm and Rebecca walker, the history of feminism can be divided into three waves. The first feminist wave was in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the second was in the 1960s and 1970s, and the third extends from the 1990s to the present. Feminist theory emerged from these feminist movements. It is manifest in a variety of disciplines such as feminist geography, feminist history and feminist literary criticism. Feminism has altered predominant perspectives in a wide range of areas within Western society, ranging from culture to law.