On, tunisians voted in the first post-revolution election to elect representatives to a 217-member constituent assembly that would be responsible for the new constitution. 207 The leading Islamist party, ennahda, won 37 of the vote, and managed to elect 42 women to the constituent Assembly. 208 On, a new constitution was elected. 209 The constitution is seen as progressive, increases human rights, gender equality, government duties toward people, lays the ground for a new parliamentary system and makes Tunisia a decentralized and open government. 209 210 On, the country held its first parliamentary elections since the 2011 Arab Spring 211 and its presidentials on 23 november 2014, 212 finishing its transition to a democratic state. These elections were characterized by the fall in popularity of Ennahdha, for the secular Nidaa tounes party, which became the first party of the country. 213 Egypt edit main articles: Egyptian revolution of 2011 and Egyptian crisis (201114) Inspired by the uprising in Tunisia and prior to his entry as a central figure in Egyptian politics, potential presidential candidate mohamed ElBaradei warned of a "Tunisia-style explosion" in Egypt. 214 Protests in Egypt began on ran for 18 days.
Uprising, essay, research Paper I will
Sinai insurgency Egyptian Armed Forces launch anti-terror military operations in the sinai. Increase in violence and attacks by insurgents since the ouster of Morsi. Egovernment overthrown Yemen government overthrown on goes February 2012. Overthrow of Ali Abdullah Saleh ; Saleh granted immunity from prosecution. Resignation of Prime minister Mujawar Resignation of MPs from the ruling party 152 Occupation of several areas of Yemeni territory by al-qaeda and houthi rebels Restructure of the military forces the by sacking several of its leaders Approval of Saleh's immunity from prosecution by yemeni legislators. The protests constituted the most dramatic wave of social and political unrest in Tunisia in three decades, 199 200 and have resulted in scores of deaths and injuries, most of which were the result of action by police and security forces against demonstrators. Ben Ali fled into exile in saudi Arabia, ending his 23 years in power. 201 202 A state of emergency was declared and a caretaker coalition government was created following Ben Ali's departure, which included members of Ben Ali's party, the constitutional Democratic Rally (rcd as well as opposition figures from other ministries. However, the five newly appointed non-rcd ministers resigned almost immediately. 203 204 As a result of continued daily protests, on 27 January Prime minister Mohamed Ghannouchi reshuffled the government, removing all former rcd members other than himself, and on 6 February the former ruling party was suspended; 205 later, on 9 March, it was dissolved. 206 Following further public protests, Ghannouchi himself resigned on 27 February, and Béji caïd Essebsi became Prime minister.
Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek re-election in 2015 (he ultimately retracted paper his previous announcement and ran anyway 106 as did Iraqi Prime minister nouri al-Maliki, whose term was ending in 2014, 107 although there were violent demonstrations demanding his immediate. 108 Protests in Jordan also caused the sacking of four successive governments 109 110 by king Abdullah. 111 The popular unrest in Kuwait also resulted in resignation of Prime minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah cabinet. 112 The geopolitical implications of the protests drew global attention. 113 Some protesters were nominated for the 2011 Nobel peace Prize. 114 Tawakkol Karman from Yemen was co-recipient of the 2011 Nobel peace Prize due to her role organizing peaceful protests. In December 2011, time magazine named "The Protester" its " Person of the year ". Another award was noted when the Spanish photographer Samuel Aranda won the 2011 World Press Photo award for his image of a yemeni woman holding an injured family member, taken during the civil uprising in Yemen on 116 Summary of conflicts by country edit government.
Tunisian President Zine El Abidine ben Ali fled to saudi Arabia on following the professional tunisian revolution protests. In Egypt, President Hosni mubarak resigned on 11 February 2011 after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. The libyan leader muammar Gaddafi was overthrown on, after the national Transitional council (NTC) took control of Bab al-azizia. He was killed on, in his hometown of Sirte after the ntc took control of the city. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh signed the gcc power-transfer deal in which a presidential election was held, resulting in his successor Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi formally replacing him as the president of Yemen on 27 February 2012, in exchange for immunity from prosecution. Weapons and tuareg fighters returning from the libyan civil War stoked a simmering conflict in Mali which has been described as 'fallout' from the Arab Spring in North Africa. 105 During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their current terms.
Unable to find work and selling fruit at a roadside stand, bouazizi had his wares confiscated by a municipal inspector on 17 December 2010. An hour later he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. His death on 71 brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others to begin the tunisian revolution. 63 The Arab Spring edit The series of protests and demonstrations across the middle east and North Africa that commenced in 2010, became known as the "Arab Spring and sometimes as the "Arab Spring and Winter 75 "Arab Awakening" or "Arab Uprisings" 80 even though. It was sparked by the first protests that occurred in Tunisia on 18 December 2010 in Sidi bouzid, following Mohamed bouazizi 's self-immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment. 81 82 With the success of the protests in Tunisia, a wave of unrest sparked by the tunisian "Burning Man" struck Algeria, jordan, egypt, and Yemen, 83 then spread to other countries. The largest, most organised demonstrations often occurred on a "day of rage usually Friday afternoon prayers. The protests also triggered similar unrest outside the region. The Arab Spring caused the "biggest transformation of the middle east since decolonization." 87 by the end of February 2012, rulers had been forced from power in Tunisia, 88 Egypt, 89 Libya, 90 and Yemen ; 91 civil uprisings had erupted in Bahrain 92 and.
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These protests included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes, during which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests. 63 64 In Egypt, the labor movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004, and provided an important venue for organizing protests and collective action. 65 One important demonstration was an attempted workers' strike on t the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kubra, just outside cairo. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country, promoted by computer-literate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students. 65 a facebook page, set up to promote the strike, attracted tens of thousands of followers and provided the platform for sustained political action in pursuit of the "long revolution." 36 The government mobilized to break the strike through infiltration and riot police, and while. 65 In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. In February 2008, United States Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is 'unhappy' with long-standing political alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week; that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the.
66 Some claimed that during 2010 there were as many as '9,700 riots and unrests' throughout the country. 67 Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care, while others cited rampant corruption. 68 In Western Sahara, the Gdeim izik methodology protest camp essay was erected 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south-east of El aaiún by a group of young Sahrawis on Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses. 69 The camp contained between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, but on 8 november 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by moroccan security forces. The security forces faced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians, and rioting soon spread to El aaiún and other towns within the territory, resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths. Violence against Sahrawis in the aftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later, after the start of the Arab Spring. 70 The catalyst for the escalation of protests was the self-immolation of Tunisian Mohamed bouazizi.
50 This large population of young Egyptian men referred to themselves as "the facebook generation exemplifying their escape from their non-modernized past. 56 Furthermore, 28 of Egyptians and 29 of Tunisians from the same poll said that blocking Facebook greatly hindered and/or disrupted communication. Social media sites were a platform for different movements formed by many frustrated citizens, including the 2008 "April 6 youth movement" organized by Ahmed Mahed, which set out to organize and promote a nationwide labor strike, and which inspired the later creation of the "Progressive. 57 During the Arab Spring, people created pages on Facebook to raise awareness about alleged crimes against humanity, such as police brutality in the Egyptian revolution (see wael Ghonim and death of Khaled Mohamed saeed ). 58 Whether the project of raising awareness was primarily pursued by Arabs themselves or simply advertised by western social media users is a matter of debate; Jared Keller, a journalist for The Atlantic, claims that most activists and protesters used Facebook (among other social media).
Jared Keller argued that the sudden and anomalous social media output was caused from westerners witnessing the situation(s and then broadcasting them. The middle east and North Africa used texting, emailing, and blogging only to organize and communicate information about internal local protests. 59 A study by zeynep Tufekci of the University of North Carolina and Christopher Wilson of the United Nations development Program concluded that "social media in general, and Facebook in particular, provided new sources of information the regime could not easily control and were crucial. In the countries with the lowest Internet penetration and the limited role of social networks, such as Yemen and Libya, the role of mainstream electronic media devices cell phones, emails, and video clips (e.g. Youtube ) was very important to cast the light on the situation in the country and spread the word about the protests in the outside world. 49 In Egypt, in cairo particularly, mosques were one of the main platforms to coordinate the protest actions and raise awareness to the masses. 62 Timeline edit main article: Timeline of the Arab Spring events leading up to the Arab Spring edit tunisia experienced a series of conflicts during the three years leading up to the Arab Spring, the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa.
Uprising : The Unfinished revolutions
43 Social media and the presentation Arab Spring presentation edit main article: Social media and the Arab Spring In the wake of the Arab Spring protests, a considerable amount of attention has been focused on the role of social media and digital technologies in allowing citizens within. 45 The influence of social media on political activism during the Arab Spring has, however, been much debated. 46 47 Protests took place both in states with a very high level of Internet usage (such as Bahrain with 88 of its population online in 2011) and in states with some of the lowest Internet penetration ( Yemen and Libya ). 49 The use of social media platforms more than doubled in Arab countries during the protests, with the exception of Libya. 50 Some researchers have shown how collective intelligence, dynamics of the crowd in participatory systems such as social media, have immense power to support a collective action such as foment a political change. 51 52 As of, the number of Facebook users in the Arab world surpassed.7 million people. 50 Some critics have argued that digital technologies and other forms of communication videos, cellular phones, blogs, photos, emails, and text messages have brought about the concept of a 'digital democracy' in parts of North Africa affected by the uprisings. 53 54 Facebook, twitter and other major social media played a key role in the movement of Egyptian and Tunisian activists in particular. 49 55 Nine out of ten Egyptians and Tunisians responded to a poll that they used Facebook to organize protests and spread awareness.
Pressures from within edit The world watched the events of the Arab Spring unfold, "gripped by the narrative of a years young generation peacefully rising up against oppressive authoritarianism to secure a more democratic political system and a brighter economic future." 16 The Arab Spring. 30 Some activists had taken part in programs sponsored by the. S.-funded National Endowment for Democracy, but the. Government did not initiate the uprisings. 31 Numerous factors led to the protests, including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy, 32 human rights violations, political corruption (demonstrated by wikileaks diplomatic cables economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors, 34 such as a large percentage. 35 36 Catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries included the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status. 37 Some protesters looked to the turkish model as an ideal (contested but peaceful elections, fast-growing but liberal economy, secular constitution but Islamist government). Other analysts blamed the rise in food prices on commodity traders and the conversion of crops to ethanol. 42 Yet others have claimed that the context of high rates of unemployment and corrupt political regimes led to dissent movements within the region.
Spring" is an allusion to the revolutions of 1848, which are sometimes referred to as the "Springtime of Nations and the Prague spring in 1968. In the aftermath of the Iraq War, it was used by various commentators and bloggers who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization. 17 The first specific use of the term Arab Spring as used to denote these events may have started with the American political journal Foreign Policy. 18 Political scientist Marc Lynch described "Arab Spring" as "a term I may have unintentionally coined in a rticle" for Foreign Policy magazine. 19 20 Joseph Massad on Al jazeera said the term was "part of a us strategy of controlling the movement's aims and goals" and directing it towards western-style liberal democracy. 18 When Arab Spring protests in some countries were followed by electoral success for Islamist parties, some American pundits coined the terms "Islamist Spring" 21 and "Islamist Winter". 22 Some observers have also drawn comparisons between the Arab Spring movements and the revolutions of 1989 (also known as the "Autumn of Nations that swept through Eastern Europe and the second World, in terms of their scale and significance. 23 25 Others, however, have pointed out that there are several key differences between the movements, such as the desired outcomes, the effectiveness of civil resistance, and the organizational role of Internet -based technologies in the Arab revolutions.
1 A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world is ash-shab yurīd isqāṭ an-niẓām the people want to bring down the regime. 2 The wave of initial revolutions and protests faded by mid-2012, as many Arab Spring demonstrations were met biography with violent responses from authorities, 3 4 5 as well as from pro-government militias and counter-demonstrators. These attacks were answered with violence from protestors in some cases. 6 7 8 Large-scale conflicts resulted—the syrian civil War, 9 10 Iraqi insurgency and the following civil war, 11 the Egyptian Crisis, coup and subsequent unrest and insurgency, 12 the libyan civil War, and the yemeni Crisis and following civil war. 13 A power struggle continued after the immediate response to the Arab Spring. While leadership changed and regimes were held accountable, power vacuums opened across the Arab world. Ultimately it came down to a contentious battle between a consolidation of power by religious elites and the growing support for democracy in many muslim-majority states. 14 The early hopes that these popular movements would end corruption, increase political participation, and bring about greater economic equity quickly collapsed in the wake of the counterrevolutionary moves in Yemen and of the saudi-uae-linked military deep state in Egypt, 15 the regional and international.
Arab, spring Ethnic Scope politics essay, research paper
This article is about the demonstrations and revolts in the Arab world in early 2010s. For other Arab revolts, see. The, arab Spring arabic : ar-Rabī al-Arabī also referred to as, arab revolutions arabic : a-'awrāt al-arabiyyah was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, paper and civil wars in, north Africa and the, middle east that began. Tunisia with the, tunisian revolution. The effects of the, tunisian revolution spread strongly to five other countries: Libya, egypt, yemen, syria and. Bahrain, where either the regime was toppled or major uprisings and social violence occurred, including riots, civil wars or insurgencies. Sustained street demonstrations took place in Morocco, iraq, algeria, iranian Khuzestan, lebanon, jordan, kuwait, oman and Sudan. Minor protests occurred in Djibouti, mauritania, the palestinian National Authority, saudi Arabia, and the moroccan-controlled Western Sahara.