Then compare them to each other to find out the patterns and differences. From these patterns and differences you may find out some clues for your research. Record key definitions and their context look for patterns and frameworks in what is written about a topic such as the context social, political, historical. Create a map of your sources going through these sources, you will find some gaps among them. Draw a map to show these 'holes' and link them with your sources. Fill in the 'holes' in your source map9 Link these 'holes' with your sources to see whether your existing sources can cover all holes. If not, you may think to expend your search range.
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Tips for a good literature review Table 2: Tips for a good Literature review 3, 4 Tips Methods Ask yourself questions ask self questions about purpose, like 'what is the specific thesis, problem, or research question that my literature review helps to define?' type, like. Am I looking at issues of theory? Etc.' scope, 'what is the scope of my literature review?' quality, 'how good was my information seeking?' wide enough to ensure i have found all the relevant material, and narrow enough to exclude irrelevant materials? Analysis, 'have i critically analyzed the literature i use? Do i follow through a set of concepts and questions, comparing items to each other in the ways resume they deal with them?' contrary, 'have i cited and discussed studies contrary to my perspective? Quickly browse abstract, keywords, conclusion, and references first do not read the entire paper right away. Read abstract first to discover the interests. Read the conclusion part to see what the authors have already done and what are left untouched. Know key authors Find out all related works done by key authors in the certain time frame. Doing this, you will know how long the authors stay in this area and how deep they dig through. Write down the main terms and their definitions search for the same terms with various definitions, and at the meantime, search for the similar definitions with different terms.
What methodologies were used to analyze the collected data? This information has to be recorded carefully in appropriate form, for example, coding book is recommended. Analyzing and synthesizing This step is continuity of the evaluating step. In this stage, the author has to put her own ideas on the evaluated data. A holistic picture of the research area should be exposed such as what have been done by previous researches; what are the gaps and where are the problems which will be solved in the primary research. The synthesis of the review can be done in various ways decided by the collected data, paper these ways can be quantitative, qualitative or mixed approaches. Publishing the work finally, the whole work will be arranged and organized based on your purpose such as historically, conceptually and methodologically 1 then a presentation of the review can be published or sent to target readers.
Expanding the searches by following references of valuable articles which have been found 1 Asking and consulting colleagues and experts (e.g. Your supervisors) about your search results periodically 1 The search can be stopped when the researchers think that the collected data is rich enough to convince readers and that the questions are answered reasonably by the collected data. Evaluating data This step is very important for convincing readers (e.g. In this step, gps the researcher has to inspect very careful and deeply the collected data retrieved in previous step. Here again the review types play a very important role in evaluation, it means the evaluated data must support the selected types of the review. For example, if the review is characterized by the focus and its goals are research outcomes and integration, the evaluated data retrieved from the articles must express the achieved results of previous researches and an integration of these results must be considered and obtained. Moreover, the following aspects should also be investigated: what kind of the type of evaluated data is? How was the process or instrument used to gather data?
The search can be varied from common and popular sources such as search engines (e.g. Google pages (wiki, blogs, research group website.) to specific and more professional places like e-libraries (acm, springer Link. specific online journals (e.g. Ed/itlib, journal of Interactive online learning.). There are some practical recommendations which the novice researchers need to be paid attention while doing the searches. More often than not, qualified and valuable data is found at professional places rather than from results given by common search engines. But the common search engines can give good clues for further searches. Initializing the search from your existing knowledge, try to use keywords or combination of the keywords Logging your searches as much informative as possible such as: where you found the articles, which articles relate to which concepts, what are your thinking and decisions from each.
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For example, "From the previous literature, what is the effect of disagreement intervention x on outcomes y and Z" 1 is a question focusing on the goal of integrating research outcomes. In particular, a similar question can be "How can peer-communication influence to learning java programming in online manner?". Filtering criteria for qualified data: While the review questions are useful to help the novice researchers to locate resources, filtering criteria are necessary and crucial in narrowing down or focusing on relevant resources. These kind of criteria are called criteria for inclusion and exclusion. Indeed, these game criteria should be considered as conditions for classifying collected resources (e.g.
Articles, papers.) into two folds: relevance (inclusion) and irrelevance (exclusion). The criteria are good enough if there is a similar classification result after giving the same set of resources to two persons classifying based on these criteria. Locating resources / data The main aim of this stage is to collect relevant resources lightened by the review questions based on the established filtering criteria. Normally, this stage will consume large time of the whole process. Nowadays, locating resources is almost done based on internet search.
To give some hints for the inexperienced researchers, this part describes briefly the process of conducting a literature review. Basically, there are 6 main steps (mainly extracted from 1) in working on the literature. The process spreads from specifying type of the review to presenting the review. Specifying type of the review A literature review can be one or a combination of several types described in previous part (Cooper's Taxonomy of Literature review). Positioning your type of the review will help you to orientate your process of conducting the review, especially in the next step - choosing review questions.
Choosing review questions There is a distinction between review questions and empirical questions in a research. The review questions refer to those questions which will be answered during the literature review while the empirical questions will be experimented and answered during the primary research conducted by researcher. At this stage, the review questions are concerned and formed. To form the review questions, two sub-steps are needed: Forming the questions and indicating filtering criteria. Forming questions: review questions are very essential and influence the whole process of the review. These questions are not only lightening your search but also directing you in evaluating, analyzing and interpreting collected data; It can be thought as compass for exploring "the forest" of knowledge and finding out your own path of the review. As mentioned, the review types influence this forming step largely.
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The taxonomy proposed by cooper has five characteristics for categorizing literature reviews, they are: focus, goal, perspective, coverage, organization, and audience. Depending on which characteristics a literature reviews concentrated on, there are various types of literature reviews. For instance, if a literature review concentrates mainly on focus characteristic, reviewers can be interested in one or more foci: Research outcomes, research methods, Theories and Practices or applications. The types of literature reviews are categorized corresponding with its characteristics shown in the table 1 below. Table 1: cooper's Taxonomy of Literature reviews 1 Characteristic Category focus Research outcomes Research methods Theories Practices or applications goal Integration (a) Generalization (b) Conflict resolution (c) Linguistic bridge-building Criticism Identification of central issues Perspective neutral representation Espousal of position coverage Exhaustive exhaustive yardage pdf with selective. For instance, a literature review is a kind of research outcomes focus and its goal is also for integration to make generalization of a acquire more information about cooper's Taxonomy of Literature review, you can read more in 1 and. Strategies for writing a literature review One of the most difficult things in writing a literature review of novice researchers is that they do not know where to start and how to do it in an efficient way.
review, possible types of the review, process in writing the literature (e.g. Strategies and some tips are addressed to help a novice researcher to understand the role of the literature review in turn to write a good review for a specific research topic. In the application part, two practical examples, which are presenting the literature reviews conducted by precedent researchers, are given to help novice researchers to imagine the realistic process in writing a review for a specific area. The last section is conclusion of our work. Presentation Purposes A literature review goes beyond the information search. It helps you identify and articulate the relationships between the literature and your field of research. 10 have summarized following basic purposes for a literature review: It provides a context for the research, It justifies the research, It ensures the research has not been done before (or that it is not just a "replication study or there are gaps in previous. Besides these basic points, a literature review can also help the researcher to identify the research trend in this area, determine the definitions of the main terms appeared in previous researches establish the knowledge base on the subject adjust the scope of the research Literature.
Write solid and avoid abstract to show a full analysis path write directly on the topic or sub-topics. Include an overall introduction and conclusion to state the scope of the research coverage. Formulate the review questions and problems. Normally, a newcomer likely makes a mistake to list papers and researchers in each paragraph when she/he first write a literature review. The literature review is not a simple list describing or summarizing others' works. The literature review shall be organized into sections by lined concepts, themes or trends. Its usually a bad sign to see every paragraph beginning with the name of a researcher.
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(Edited by guangbing Yang and Thai bui). Contents 1 Introduction 2 Presentation.1 Purposes.2 Literature review Classifications.3 Strategies for writing a literature review.4 Tips for a good literature review 3 Application.1 Example.2 Example 2 4 Conclusion 5 References, introduction, a literature review is study of what. It is often a part of the introduction to an essay, research report, or thesis. Taylor4 mentioned that people writing the literature review try to convey to their readers what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses summary are. 4 argued one of main roles of the literature review is to enlarge people's knowledge about the topic. He also mentioned that conducting a literature review, an author can also gain and demonstrate skills in following two areas: information seeking : the ability to scan the literature efficiently, using manual or computerized methods, to identify a set of useful articles and books critical. When writing a literature review, the author shall consider these things: tightly associate the review contents and context with the research questions emphasizes the relationships between research problems and the outcomes of the literature review. Identify areas of controversy in the literature. List the questions that need further research.