1 Peninsula edit In 1862, the Union Army of the potomac began its Peninsula campaign against Richmond, virginia, and Stuart's cavalry brigade assisted Gen. Johnston 's army as it withdrew up the virginia peninsula in the face of superior numbers. Stuart fought at the battle of Williamsburg, but in general the terrain and weather on the peninsula did not lend themselves to cavalry operations. Lee became commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, he requested that Stuart perform reconnaissance to determine whether the right flank of the Union army was vulnerable. Stuart set out with 1,200 troopers on the morning of June 12 and, having determined that the flank was indeed vulnerable, took his men on a complete circumnavigation of the Union army, returning after 150 miles on July 15 with 165 captured Union soldiers, 260. His men met no serious opposition from the more decentralized Union cavalry, coincidentally commanded by his father-in-law, col. The maneuver was a public relations sensation and Stuart was greeted with flower petals thrown in his path at Richmond. He had become as famous as Stonewall Jackson in the eyes of the confederacy.
Lee, now commanding the armed forces of Virginia, ordered him to report to colonel Thomas. Jackson at Harper's Ferry. Jackson chose to ignore Stuart's infantry designation and assigned him on July 4 to command all the cavalry companies of the Army of the Shenandoah, organized as the 1st Virginia cavalry regiment. 28 he was promoted to colonel on July. 1 Stuart is a rare man, wonderfully endowed by nature with the qualities necessary for an officer of light cavalry. Calm, firm, acute, active, and enterprising, i know no one more competent than he to estimate the occurrences before him at their true value. If you add to this army a real brigade of cavalry, you can find no better brigadier-general to command. Johnston, letter to confederate President Jefferson davis, august 1861 29 After early service in the Shenandoah Valley, stuart led his regiment in the first Battle of Bull Run, and participated in the pursuit of the retreating Federals. He then commanded the Army's outposts along the upper Potomac river until given command of the cavalry brigade for the army then known as the Army of the potomac (later named plants the Army of Northern Virginia ). He was promoted to brigadier general on September 24, 1861.
(His letter of resignation, sent from cairo, illinois, was accepted by the war Department on may.) 25 Upon learning that resume his father-in-law, col. Cooke, would remain in the. Army during the coming war, Stuart wrote to his brother-in-law (future confederate Brig. John Rogers cooke "He will regret it but once, and that will be continuously." 26 On June 26, 1860, Flora gave birth to a son, Philip. George cooke stuart, but his father changed the name to james Ewell Brown Stuart,. jimmie in late 1861 out of disgust with his father-in-law. 27 Confederate Army edit early service edit Stuart was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel of Virginia infantry in the confederate Army on may 10, 1861.
Arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Stuart volunteered to be aide-de-camp salon to col. Lee and accompanied lee with a company. Marines from the marine barracks, 8th i, washington,. 23 and four companies of Maryland militia. While delivering lee's written surrender ultimatum to the leader of the group, who had been calling himself Isaac Smith, Stuart recognized "Old Osawatomie brown" from his days in Kansas. 24 Stuart was promoted to captain on April 22, 1861, but resigned from the. Army on may 3, 1861, to join the confederate States Army, following the secession of Virginia.
21 Stuart returned in September to fort leavenworth and was reunited with his wife. Their first child, a girl, had been born in 1856 but died the same day. On november 14, 1857, Flora gave birth to another daughter, whom the parents named Flora after her mother. The family relocated in early 1858 to fort Riley, where they remained for three years. 22 In 1859, Stuart developed a new piece of cavalry equipment, for which he received patent number 25,684 on October 4—a saber hook, or an "improved method of attaching sabers to belts." The. Government paid Stuart 5,000 for a "right to use" license and Stuart contracted with Knorr, nece and. Of Philadelphia to manufacture his hook. While in Washington,. C., to discuss government contracts, and in conjunction with his application for an appointment into the quartermaster department, Stuart heard about John Brown 's raid on the.
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Dragoon Regiment, lieutenant Colonel Philip. Burke gpr davis described Flora as "an accomplished horsewoman, and though not pretty, an effective charmer to whom "Stuart succumbed with hardly a struggle." 18 They became engaged in September, less than two months after meeting. Stuart humorously wrote of his rapid courtship in Latin, " Veni, vidi, victus sum " (I came, i saw, i was conquered). Although a gala wedding was planned for Fort Riley, kansas, the death of Stuart's father on September 20 caused a change of plans and the marriage on november 14 was small and limited to family witnesses. 19 The couple owned two slaves until 1859, one inherited from his father's estate, the other purchased.
20 Stuart's leadership capabilities were soon recognized. He was a veteran of the frontier conflicts with Native americans and the antebellum violence of Bleeding Kansas. He was wounded on July 29, 1857, while fighting at Solomon river, kansas, against the Cheyenne. Sumner ordered a charge with drawn sabers against a wave of Indian arrows. Scattering the warriors, Stuart and three other lieutenants chased one down, whom Stuart wounded in the thigh with his pistol. The Cheyenne turned and fired at Stuart with an old-fashioned pistol, striking him in the chest with a bullet, which did little more damage than to pierce the skin.
Lee's nephew, fitzhugh lee, also arrived at the academy in 1852. In Stuart's final year, in addition to achieving the cadet rank of second captain of the corps, he was one of eight cadets designated as honorary "cavalry officers" for his skills in horsemanship. 13 Stuart graduated 13th in his class of 46 in 1854. He ranked tenth in his class in cavalry tactics. Although he enjoyed the civil engineering curriculum at the academy and did well in mathematics, his poor drawing skills hampered his engineering studies, and he finished 29th in that discipline.
A stuart family tradition says he deliberately degraded his academic performance in his final year to avoid service in the elite, but dull, corps of Engineers. 14 United States Army edit Stuart was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant and assigned to the. Regiment of mounted Riflemen in Texas. 1 After an arduous journey, he reached Fort davis on January 28, 1855, and was a leader for three months on scouting missions over the san Antonio to El Paso road. 15 he was soon transferred to the newly formed 1st cavalry regiment (1855) at Fort leavenworth, kansas Territory, where he became regimental quartermaster 16 and commissary officer under the command of Col. 17 he was promoted to first lieutenant in 1855., stuart met Flora cooke, the daughter of the commander of the 2nd.
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Elizabeth Letcher Pannill Stuart, jeb's mother, who was known as a strict religious woman with a good sense for business, ran the family farm. 6 Education edit a young Stuart Stuart was educated at home by his mother and tutors until the age of twelve, when he biography left laurel Hill to be educated by various teachers in Wytheville, virginia, and at the home of his aunt Anne (Archibald's sister). 8 he entered Emory and Henry college when he was fifteen, and attended from 1848 to 1850. 9 During the summer of 1848, Stuart attempted to enlist in the. Army, but was rejected as underaged. He obtained an appointment in 1850 to the United States Military Academy at West point, new York, from Representative thomas Hamlet averett, the man who had defeated his father in the 1848 election. 10 Stuart was a popular student and was happy at the Academy. Although not handsome in his teen years, his classmates called him by the nickname "beauty which they described as his "personal comeliness in inverse ratio to the term employed." 11 he possessed a chin "so short and retiring as positively to disfigure his otherwise fine. Lee was appointed superintendent of the academy in 1852, and Stuart became a friend of the lee family, seeing them socially on frequent occasions.
Stuart's widow wore black for the rest of her life in remembrance of her deceased husband. Contents Early life edit laurel Hill Farm overview, 2017 Stuart was born at laurel Hill Farm, a plantation in Patrick county, virginia, near the border with North Carolina. He was of Scottish American and Scots-Irish background. 4 he was the eighth of eleven children and the youngest of the five sons to survive past early age. 5 His great-grandfather, major Alexander Stuart, commanded a regiment at the battle of guilford court house during the American revolutionary war. 6 His father, Archibald Stuart, was a war essay of 1812 veteran, slaveholder, attorney, and Democratic politician who represented Patrick county in both houses of the virginia general Assembly, and also served one term in the United States house of Representatives. 7 Archibald was a cousin of Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart.
and on two occasions (during the. Peninsula campaign and the, maryland Campaign ) circumnavigated the, union, army of the potomac, bringing fame to himself and embarrassment to the. At the, battle of Chancellorsville, he distinguished himself as a temporary commander of the wounded Stonewall Jackson's infantry corps. Arguably Stuart's most famous campaign, gettysburg, was marred when he was surprised by a union cavalry attack at the. Battle of Brandy Station and by his separation from lee's army for an extended period, leaving lee unaware of Union troop movements and contributing to the confederate defeat at the battle of Gettysburg. Stuart received significant criticism from the southern press as well as the postbellum proponents of the lost cause movement, but historians have failed to agree on whether Stuart's exploit was entirely the fault of his judgment or simply a result of bad luck and lee's. During the 1864 overland Campaign, union Maj. Philip Sheridan 's cavalry launched an offensive to defeat Stuart, who was mortally wounded at the battle of Yellow tavern.
While he cultivated a cavalier image (red-lined gray cape, yellow sash, hat cocked to the side with an ostrich plume, red flower in his lapel, often sporting cologne his serious work made him the trusted eyes and ears. Lee 's army and inspired summary southern morale. 3, stuart graduated from, west point in 1854, and served in Texas and Kansas with the. He was a veteran of the frontier conflicts with Native americans and the violence. Bleeding Kansas, and he participated in the capture. John Brown at, harpers Ferry. He resigned, when his home state of Virginia seceded, to serve in the confederate Army, first under.
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"Jeb Stuart" redirects here. For other uses, see. James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart (February 6, 1833 may 12, 1864) was. United States Army officer from the,. State of, virginia, who later became a, confederate States Army general during the. He was known to his friends as "Jeb from the initials of his given names. Stuart was a cavalry commander known for his mastery of reconnaissance and the use of cavalry in word support of offensive operations.