That computer stored records of cancer patients' radiation treatment. Altering files on that computer could have killed patients, which reminded everyone that hacking was a serious problem. This 1983 incident was cited by the. Congress in the legislative history of a federal computer crime statute. 99-432 (1986 reprinted in 1986. There is an interesting case under California state law for a criminal who improved his clients' credit rating.
The Crime of Stalking Essay - 2227 Words bartleby
The computer voyeurs, like petty criminals who peek in other people's windows, generally hack into other people's computers for the thrill. In the 1970s and early 1980s, many of these computer voyeurs also used technology to make long-distance telephone calls for free, which language technology also concealed their location when they were hacking into computers. Many of these voyeurs take a special thrill from hacking into military computers, bank computers, and telephone operating system computers, because the security is allegedly higher at these computers, so it is a greater technical challenge to hack into these machines. The criminals who change or delete data, or who deliberately gobble large amounts of computer resources, have a more sinister english motive and are capable of doing immense damage. Of course, there is always the possibility that a computer voyeur will "accidentally" bumble around an unfamiliar system and cause appreciable damage to someone else's files or programs. Traditional criminal law in the usa places a great deal of emphasis on willful or intentional conduct, so such "accidental" damage would not satisfy the traditional requirement of mens rea (literally "guilty mind" or criminal intent). My personal opinion is that someone who deliberately hacks into someone else's computer should be accountable under criminal law for whatever damage is done by the unauthorized hacking, even if the damage is "accidental". In this regard, i would make an analogy to a homicide that occurs "accidentally" during the commission of a felony: the perpetrators are then charged with "felony murder the intent to commit the hacking constitutes the malice or intent to cause the damage. In the 1970s and early 1980s, a common reaction was that hackers were a minor nuisance, like teenagers throwing rolls of toilet paper into trees. Then, in August 1983, a group of young hackers in Milwaukee hacked into a computer at the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute in New York city.
Not only should you refuse to provide such information, but please report such requests to the management of the online service or the local police, so they can be alert to an active criminal. Search user's offices for such data, as many people post their user name and password on the side of their monitor or filing cabinet, where these data can be conveniently seen. Write a program that tries different combinations of user names and passwords until one is accepted. Use a packet "sniffer" program to find user names and passwords as they travel through networks. Search through a garbage bin behind the computer building in a university or corporate campus, find trash paper that lists user names and passwords. A disgruntled employee can use his legitimate computer account and password for unauthorized uses of his employer's computer. This can be particularly damaging when the disgruntled employee is the computer system administrator, who knows master password(s) and can enter any user's file area. Such disgruntled employees can perpetrate an "inside job working from within the employer's building, instead of accessing a computer via modem.
The classic definition of a burglary is: the breaking and entering of a building with the intent to commit a felony therein. In traditional burglaries, the felony was typically larceny, an unlawful taking of another person's property. However, in the unauthorized use of another's computer, the criminal "enters" guaranteed the computer via the telephone lines, which is not breaking into the building. Either the burglary statute needed to be made more general or new criminal statute(s) needed to be enacted for unauthorized access to a computer. Legislatures chose to enact totally new statutes. To successfully use a remote computer, any user (including criminals) must have both a valid user name and valid password. There are several basic ways to get these data: Call up a legitimate user, pretend to be a system administrator, and ask for the user name and password. This sounds ridiculous, but many people will give out such valuable information to anyone who pretends to have a good reason.
If a vandal were to break into an office and either damage or steal the punch cards, the vandal could be adequately punished under traditional law of breaking and entering, vandalism, or theft. However, after about 1975, it became common to enter programs and data from remote terminals (a keyboard and monitor) using a modem and a telephone line. This same technology allowed banks to retrieve a customer's current balance from the bank's central computer, and merchants to process credit card billing without sending paper forms. But this change in technology also meant that a criminal could alter data and programs from his home, without physical entry into the victim's building. The traditional laws were no longer adequate to punish criminals who used computer modems. Most unauthorized use of a computer is accomplished by a person in his home, who uses a modem to access a remote computer. In this way, the computer criminal is acting analogous to a burglar.
Stalking Essay - 484 Words bartleby
The criminal reads (or copies) confidential or proprietary information, but data is neither deleted nor changed. In 1999, the melissa virus henry infected a possibly confidential document on a victim's computer, then automatically sent that document and copy of the virus via e-mail to other people. Subsequently, the sirCam and Klez malicious programs made a similar release of possibly confidential documents from a victim's computer. These malicious programs are a new way to release confidential information from a victim's computer, with the confidential information going not to the author of the malicious program, but to some person unknown to the author of the malicious program. For example, change a grade on a school transcript, add "money" to a checking account, etc. Unauthorized changing of data is generally a fraudulent act.
Deleting entire files could be an act of vandalism or sabotage. Denying service to authorized users. On a modern time-sharing computer, any user takes some time and disk space, which is then not available to other users. By "denying service to authorized users i mean gobbling unreasonably large amounts of computer time or disk space, for example: by sending large amounts of junk e-mail in one day, a so-called "mail bomb by having the computer execute a malicious program that puts the processing unit into. This is called a denial of service ( dos ) attack. During, computer programs and data were generally stored on cardboard cards with holes punched in them.
Stealing a laptop computer with proprietary information stored on the hard disk inside the computer is the same crime as stealing a briefcase that contains papers with proprietary information. Using the Internet or online services to solicit sex is similar to other forms of solicitation of sex, and so is not a new crime. Using computers can be another way to commit either larceny or fraud. In contrast to merely using computer equipment as a tool to commit old crimes, this essay is concerned with computer crimes that are new ways to harm people. False origin There are many instances of messages sent in the name of someone who neither wrote the content nor authorized the sending of the message.
For example: E-mails with bogus From: addresses were sent automatically by malicious programs (e.g., the melissa virus in 1999, the badTrans worm in 2001, the Klez program in 2002). Posting messages in an Internet newsgroup or online bulletin board with a false author's name that is intended to harm the reputation of the real person of that name. These acts might be punishable by existing criminal statutes that prohibit impersonation, forgery, deceit, or fraud. However, a judge might decide that the specific language in old statutes about writing or signature does not apply to e-mail. Rather than write new statutes for forged e-mail addresses or unauthorized sending of e-mail in someone else's name, i would prefer that legislatures broaden the existing criminal statutes for analogous crimes with paper and ink. Similar issues arise in both: (1) fictitious From: addresses in some unsolicited commercial e-mail, also called spam or junk e-mail, and (2) fictitious source ip addresses in denial of service attacks. Unauthorized Use Unauthorized use of computers tends generally takes the following forms: Computer voyeur.
Stalking And Stalkers Essay - 1023 Words
I do not have the spare time that would be required for a assignment thorough search and analysis of reported cases and statutes on computer crime, as well as newspaper accounts (most criminal proceedings are resolved without generating any judicial decision that is reported in legal databases or books. New crimes in cyberspace There are three major classes of criminal activity with computers: un authorized use of a computer, which might involve stealing a username and password, or might involve accessing the victim's computer via the Internet through a backdoor operated by a trojan Horse. Creating or releasing a malicious computer program (e.g., computer virus, worm, Trojan Horse). Harassment and stalking in cyberspace. Old crimes When lay people hear the words margaret "computer crime they often think of obscene pictures available on the Internet, or solicitation of children for sex by pedophiles via chat rooms on the Internet. The legal problem of obscenity on the Internet is mostly the same as the legal problem of obscenity in books and magazines, except for some technical issues of personal jurisdiction on the Internet. I have discussed obscenity on the Internet in my may 1997 essay on law technology and I have nothing further to say about obscenity in this essay on computer crime. Similarly, many crimes involving computers are no different from crimes without computers: the computer is only a tool that a criminal uses to commit a crime. For example, using a computer, a scanner, graphics software, and a high-quality color laser or ink jet printer for forgery or counterfeiting is the same crime as using an old-fashioned printing press with ink.
Nevertheless, there is a consensus among both law enforcement personnel and computer scientists who specialize in security that both the number of computer crime incidents and the sophistication of computer criminals is increasing rapidly. Estimates are that computer crime costs victims in the usa at least, us 5108/year, and the true value of such crime might be substantially higher. Experts in computer security, who are not attorneys, speak of "information warfare". While such "information warfare" is just another name for computer crime, the word "warfare" does fairly denote the amount of damage inflicted on society. I have posted a separate document, tips for avoiding Computer Crime, which includes suggestions for increasing the security and reliability of personal computers, as well as links to websites on computer viruses, computer crime, and anti-virus and firewall software. Two comments on word usage in this essay: I normally write in a gender revolution neutral way, but here i use the masculine pronoun for computer criminals, because (1) female computer criminals are rare and (2) I can't imagine a feminist attacking me because i deny. grin to some professional computer programmers, the word "hacker" refers to a skilled programmer and is neither pejorative nor does it refer to criminal activity. However, to most users of English, the word "hacker" refers to computer criminals, and that is the usage that I have adopted in this essay. I originally wrote this essay in may 1999.
in usa. Sue criminals in tort. Journalists, conclusion, introduction, there are no precise, reliable statistics on the amount of computer crime and the economic loss to victims, partly because many of these crimes are apparently not detected by victims, many of these crimes are never reported to authorities, and partly because.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12 with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow apa format. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: Describe law enforcement roles and responses. Analyze the different types of apple crimes on the world Wide web involving victimization, sex crimes, and obscenity. Explain the various digital laws and legislation in support of law enforcement. Use technology and information resources to research issues in information technology in criminal justice. Write clearly and concisely about information technology in criminal justice topics using proper writing mechanics and technical style convention. To get a custom written paper, place an order with us! Additional Benefits for you 24/7 customer support, on-time delivery guarantee, plagiarism-free research papers. Affordable and student-friendly prices, scholarly-rich custom-written papers 100 privacy and confidentiality greatest challenge facing law enforcement agencies investigating exploitation, cyber stalking, and obscenity).
Stalking Essay - 680 Words
Law Enforcement Challenges, write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you: Explain, in detail, what you believe to be the greatest challenge facing law enforcement agencies investigating exploitation, cyber stalking, and obscenity. Provide a rationale for your response. Identify the specific challenges that overlapping of jurisdictions shredder pose in the fight against cyber-crime. Next, propose salient solution(s) for overcoming the challenges in question. Discuss whether or not law officers from different states should have the ability to work with one another when a cyber-crime is carried out across state lines. Use at least three (3) quality references for this assignment. Note: wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources and.