70 Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh; reasons at distance and in prospect lie: That sees immediate good by present sense; reason, the future and the consequence. Thicker than arguments, temptations throng; 75 At best more watchful this, but that more strong. The action of the stronger to suspend, reason still use, to reason still attend. Attention habit and experience gains; Each strengthens reason, and Self-love restrains. 80 Let subtle schoolmen teach these friends to fight, more studious to divide than to unite; And Grace and Virtue, sense and reason split, with all the rash dexterity of Wit. Wits, just like fools, at war about a name, 85 have full as oft no meaning, or the same.
Essay about destroying nature
Instruct the planets in kalam what orbs to run, correct old Time, and regulate the sun; go, soar with Plato to th empyreal sphere, to the first good, first perfect, and first fair; Or tread the mazy round his followers trod, 25, and quitting sense call. Go, teach Eternal Wisdom how to rule Then drop into thyself, and be a fool! 30 Superior beings, when of late they saw A mortal man unfold all Natures law, Admired such wisdom in an earthly shape, and showd a n ewton as we show an ape. Could he, whose rules the rapid comet bind, 35 Describe or fix one movement of his mind? Who saw its fires here rise, and there descend, Explain his own beginning or his end? Mans english superior part Uncheckd may rise, and climb from art to art; 40 But when his own great work is but begun, What reason weaves, by passion is undone. Trace Science then, with modesty thy guide; First strip off all her equipage of pride; Deduct what is but vanity or dress, 45 Or learnings luxury, or idleness, Or tricks to show the stretch of human brain, mere curious pleasure, or ingenious pain; Expunge the. Two principles in Human Nature reign, self-love to urge, and reason to restrain; Nor this a good, nor that a bad we call; 55 Each works its end, to move or govern all: And to their proper operation still Ascribe all good, to their improper. Self-love, the spring of motion, acts the soul; reasons comparing balance rules the whole. 60 Man but for that no action could attend, And but for this were active to no end: Fixd like a plant on his peculiar spot, to draw nutrition, propagate, and rot; Or meteor-like, flame lawless thro the void, 65 Destroying others, by himself destroyd. Most strength the moving principle requires; Active its task, it prompts, impels, inspires: Sedate and quiet the comparing lies, formd but to check, delibrate, and advise.
Its necessity, in directing men to different purposes. Its providential use, in fixing our principle, and ascertaining our virtue, verse 93, etc. Virtue and Vice joined in our mixed nature; the limits near, yet the things separate and evident: what is the office of reason, verse 203, etc. How odious Vice in itself, and how we deceive ourselves into it, verse 217, etc. That, however, the ends of Providence, and general goods, are answered in our passions and imperfections. How usefully these are distributed to all orders of men: how useful they are to society; and to individuals; in every state, and every age of life, verse 238, etc., to the end. K, nOW then thyself, presume not God to scan, The proper study of mankind is Man. Placed on this isthmus of a middle state, a being darkly wise and rudely great: summary With too much knowledge for the Sceptic side, 5, with too much weakness for the Stoics pride, he hangs between, in doubt to act or rest; In doubt to deem. Mount where Science guides; go measure earth, weigh air, and state the tides;.
Of the paper nature and State of Man with Respect to himself about As an Individual. The business of Man not to pry into god, but to study himself. His middle nature; his powers and frailties, verses 1. The limits of his capacity, verse 19, etc. The two principles of Man, self-love and reason, both necessary. Self-love the stronger, and why. Their end the same, verse 81, etc. The passions, and their use. The predominant passion, and its force.
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Man, and, nature, essay
If it appear that the injury in question is but a prelude to others, and that it proceeds from a disposition which nothing less than entire destruction can satisfy, and war presents any tolerable chance of success, how small soever, prudence and reason may join. For, though in case of perseverance on the part of the assailant, a successful resistance may appear impossible; yet resistance, such as can be opposed, may, by gaining time, give room for some unexpected incident to arise, and may st any rate, by the inconvenience. Though the Spartans at Thermopylæ perished to a man, yet the defence of Thermopylæ was not without its use. If, on the other hand, the aggression, though too flagrant not to be accompanied with mala fides, appear to have for its origin some passion or caprice essay which has for its incentive some limited object, and promises to be contented with that object,-the option. The dutch displayed prudence while they yielded to the suggestions of indignation, in defending themselves against the force of Spain. The same people displayed their prudence in yielding to Britain the frivolous honours of the flag, at the end of the war of 1652; they would have displayed still more, if thief they had made the same concession at the beginning.
Lastly, if the aggression, how unjust soever it may appear, when viewed in the point of view in which it is contemplated by the state which is the object of it, does not appear accompanied with mala fides on the part of the aggressor, nothing. The sacrifice is seen at once in its utmost extent, and it must be singular, indeed, if the amount of it can approach to that of the expense of a single campaign. When war has broken out, a palliative for its evils might perhaps be found in the appointment of war-residents, to provide prisoners and to prevent violations of the laws of war; Will it be said, that in quality of a spy such residents would. An enemy known to be such, could scarcely be a spy. All the proceedings of such residents should be open, and all his letters subjected to inspection. At present, foreigners are scarcely excluded from an enemy's country-scarcely even military men or ministers; and so soon as it is wished to employ a spy, could not a native be found? A resident of this character could always he employed as a channel of communication if an accommodation were desired.
The difference between religion and no religion, however grating, is not nearly so irritating as that between one religion and another. Means of prevention :-progress of toleration. Means of prevention : Salaries determinate, but effective. Wars may be:-. A remedy against these would be found in The Tribunal of peace. The remedy against these,-reasoning, showing the repugnancy betwixt passion on the one hand, and justice as well as interest on the other.
Wars of ambition, or insolence, or rapine. The remedies against these are-1. Reasoning, showing the repugnancy betwixt ambition and true interest;. Remedies of regulation, in the event of a temporary ascendency on the part of reason. In all these cases, the utility with regard to the state which looks upon itself as aggrieved-the reasonableness in a word, of going to war with the aggressors depends partly upon his relative force, partly upon what appears to have been the state of his. If it be evident that there was no mala fides on his part, it can never lie for the advantage of the aggrieved state to have recourse to war, whether it be stronger or weaker than the aggressor, and that in whatever degree;-in that case. In case of mala fides, whether even then it would be worth while to have recourse to war, will depend upon circumstances.
Essay on how man is destroying the Environment
It must be allowed that the matter would be a delicate one: there might be some difficulty with in persuading one lion to cut his claws; but if the lion, or rather the enormous condor which holds him fast by the head, should agree to cut. Let the cost of the attempt be what assignment it would, it would be amply repaid by success. What tranquillity for all sovereigns!-what relief for every people! What a spring would not the commerce, the population, the wealth of all nations take, which are at present confined, when set free from the fetters in which they are now held by the care of their defence. Means of prevention :-defensive confederations. Disputes respecting new discoveries-respecting the limits of acquisitions made by one state at the expense of another, on the ground of peaceful occupation; means of prevention :-previous agreement on the subject of possible discoveries. Part taken in intestine troubles. The refusal of a foreign power to recognise the right of a newly-formed government, has been a frequent cause of war; but no interest being at stake on either side, nothing as much as proposed to be gained, it is evident that on both sides. Injuries caused on account of religion.
Means of prevention :- liquidation of titles: amicable demarcations positively made: perfecting of the style of the laws: regulation. Disputes summary arising from violations of territory. Means of prevention :-confederations of defence: alliances defensive: general guarantees. Attempts at monopoly in commerce: Insolence of the strong towards the weak: tyranny of one nation towards another. Means of prevention :-confederations defensive: conventions limiting the number of troops to be maintained. No one could regard treaties implying positive obligations in this kind as chimerical; yet, if these are not so, those implying negative obligation are still less. There may arise difficulty in maintaining an army; there can arise none in not doing.
the interests of the citizens-. Means of prevention :-liquidation of the pretensions of the subjects of every sovereign, with regard to the subjects of every other sovereign. Occasional injuries from rivalry in commerce: interception of the rights of property. Means of prevention :-general liberty of commerce. Offences, real or pretended, of the citizens of one state towards the citizens of another state, caused by the interests or pretensions of sovereigns:-. Disputes respecting the right of succession. Means of prevention :-liquidation of titles: perfecting the style of the laws. Disputes respecting boundaries, whether physical or ideal.
Incentives to war will be found in the entry war admiring turn of histories, particularly ancient histories, in the prejudices of men, the notion of natural rivalry and repugnancy of interests, confusion between meum and tuum between private ownership and public sovereignty, and the notion. In ancient times there was one system of inducements, under the feudal system another, and in modern times another. The following may be enumerated among the inducements to war:-apprehension of injustice-hope of plunder of moveables by individuals-hope of gain by raising contributions-hope of gain by sale or ransom of captives-national pride or glory-monarchical pride-national antipathy-increase of patronage-hope of preferment. States have no persons distinct from the persons of individuals; but they have property, which is the property of the state, and not of individuals. When an individual has a dispute about property with an individual, or has sustained what he looks upon as an injury in respect of his property from an individual, he applies for redress to their common superior, the judicial power of the state. When a state has sustained what it looks upon as an injury, in respect of property, from another state-there being no common superior ready chosen for them-it must either submit to the injury, as get the other state to join in the appointment. Every state regards itself as bound to afford to its own subjects protection, so far as it is in its power, against all injuries they may sustain either from the subjects or the government of any other state. The utility of the disposition to afford such protection is evident, and the existence of such disposition no less. Accordingly, if any individual subject of the state a, receive from a subject of the state b, an injury for which the state b forbears, after due proof and demand, to afford or procure adequate satisfaction, it is to the purpose of responsibility, the same.
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Of War, considered in Respect of its causes and Consequences., jeremy bentham, father's The Principles of International Law, Essay. The Principles of International Law, jeremy bentham, essay. Of War, considered in Respect of its causes and Consequences. War is mischief upon the largest scale. It might seem at first sight, that to inquire into the causes of war would be the same thing as to inquire into the causes of criminality, and that in the one case as in the other, the source of it is to be looked. A nearer view, however, will show in several points considerable difference,-these differences turn on the magnitude of the scale. The same motives will certainly be found operating in the one case as in the other; but in tracing the process from the original cause to the ultimate effect a variety of intermediate considerations will present themselves in the instance of war, which have.