Today, primitive farming practices continue to produce massive loss of topsoil (5, 6 while excluding the possibility for long-term carbon sequestration in the form of trees and other permanent woods plants (7). Agrochemicals, particularly fertilizers, are used in almost every major farming system regardless of location (8 largely due to the demand, year in and year out, for cash crops that extract more nutrients from the substrate that it can provide. Mono-crops are extraordinarily vulnerable to a wide range of insect pests and microbial disease agents due to the very nature of farming (i.e., growing large numbers of a given plant species in a confined area). To mount a counter-offensive, we have invented pesticides and herbicides. Their use has become routine in many situations, particularly in factory farms. Agricultural runoff, which typically contains all of the above-mentioned classes of chemicals, and is also often laden with unhealthy levels of heavy metals, as well, is generally acknowledged as the most pervasive and destructive form of water pollution, degrading virtually every freshwater aquatic environment that. Many of the earths most impacted regions (i.e., those with the highest population densities) are generally conceded to be unhealthy places to live (western Europe and North America excepted with infant morbidity/mortality rates many times greater than those found in Europe and North America (11). These are the same places from which new kinds of emerging and known varieties of re-emerging infections are found (12).
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Spoilage would be greatly reduced, since crops would be sold and consumed within moments after harvesting. If vertical farming in urban centers becomes the norm, then one anticipated long-term benefit would be the gradual repair of many of the worlds damaged ecosystems through the systematic abandonment of farmland. In temperate and tropical zones, the re-growth of hardwood forests could play a significant role in carbon sequestration and may help reverse current trends in global climate change. Other benefits of vertical farming include the creation of a sustainable urban environment that encourages good health for all who choose to live there; new employment opportunities, fewer abandoned lots and buildings, cleaner air, safe use of municipal liquid waste, and an abundant supply. Introduction, as of 2004, approximately 800 million hectares of land were in use for food production approximating an area equivalent to Brazil (1 and allowing for the harvesting of an ample food supply for the majority summary of a human population approaching.3 billion. These land-use estimates include grazing lands (formerly grasslands) for cattle, and represents nearly 85 of all land that can support at least a minimum level of agricultural activity. In addition, farming produces a wide variety of feed grains for many millions of head of cattle and other species of domesticated farm animal (2). In 2003, nearly 33 million head of cattle were produced in the United States, alone (3) In order to support this large a scale of agricultural activity, millions of hectares of hardwood forest (temperate and tropical grasslands, wetlands, estuaries, and to a lesser extent coral. The advantages of farming are obvious enough from a human perspective, but even our earliest efforts caused irreversible damage to the land. For example, some 8,000 to 10,000 years ago, the fertile, silt-laden soils of the floodplains of the tigris and Euphrates river valleys were rapidly degraded below minimum food production limits due to erosion caused by intensive farming and mis-managed irrigation projects that were often interrupted.
As if that were no enough to be concerned about, it is predicted that over the next 50 years, the human population is expected to rise to at least.6 billion, requiring an additional 109 hectares to feed them using current technologies, or roughly the. That quantity of additional arable land is simply not available. Without an alternative strategy for dealing with just this one problem, social chaos will surely replace orderly behavior in most over-crowded countries. Novel ways for obtaining an abundant and varied food supply without encroachment into the few remaining functional ecosystems must be seriously entertained. One solution involves the construction of urban food production centers vertical farms in which our food would be continuously grown inside of tall buildings within the built environment. If we could engineer this approach to food production, then no crops would ever fail due to severe paper weather events (floods, droughts, hurricanes, etc.). Produce would be available to city dwellers without the need to transport it thousands of miles from rural farms to city markets.
Today, over 800 million hectares is committed to soil-based agriculture, or about 38 of the total landmass of the earth. It has re-arranged the landscape in favor of cultivated fields at the expense of natural ecosystems, reducing most natural areas to fragmented, semi-functional units, while completely eliminating many others. A reliable food supply was the result. This singular invention has facilitated our growth as a species to the point now of world domination over the natural world from which we evolved. Despite the obvious advantage of not having to hunt or scavenge for our next meal, farming has led to new health hazards by creating ecotones between the natural world and our cultivated fields. As the result, transmission rates of numerous infectious disease agents have dramatically increased- influenza, rabies, yellow fever, dengue fever, malaria, trypanosomiasis, hookworm, schistosomiasis and today these agents emerge and re-emerge with devastating regularity at the tropical and sub-tropical agricultural interface. Modern agriculture employs a multitude of chemical products, and exposure to toxic levels of some classes of agrochemicals (pesticides, fungicides) have created other significant health risks that are only now being sorted out by epidemiologists and toxicologists.
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Afarensis and the sequence of fossils from Kanapoi, allia bay, laetoli, and Hadar can be considered a single species. . The trends suggesting that this sequence of fossils represents a single species come predominantly from the size and shape of the mandible and lower third premolar. . For clarity and to formalize the differences found in this single species, which would include fossils currently assigned. Anamensis, however, most scholars continue to regard the fossils as separate species—i. E., the fossils from Allia bay and Kanapoi are referred to as. Anamensis and the fossils from laetoli and Hadar (and a handful of other sites, see essay. Afarensis ) are referred to.
The environments in which. Anamensis lived have been skywriter reconstructed as forested habitats near streams. . Combined with evidence from other early essay purportedly bipedal hominin species (e.g., Ardipithecus kadabba and. Ramidus these environmental reconstructions argue strongly against the once wide-held idea that bipedalism initially evolved and flourished in open savanna environments). Abstract, the advent of agriculture has ushered in an unprecedented increase in the human population and their domesticated animals. Farming catalyzed our transformation from primitive hunter-gatherers to sophisticated urban dwellers in just 10,000 years.
Finally, estimates of body size suggest that, at roughly 47-55 kilograms,. Anamensis was slightly larger than,. Ramidus and sexual dimorphism (i.e., size and shape differences between males and females of the species) was similar to that found in. The evolutionary relationships between. Afarensis have received a great deal of scholarly interest. . The fossils.
Anamensis from Kanapoi are geologically older than those from Allia bay and are more similar. Ramidus and living apes. . In addition, the. Anamensis sample from Allia bay is more similar to the older sample. Afarensis fossils found at laetoli, tanzania than they are to the younger sample. Afarensis fossils from Hadar, Ethiopia. . These facts have led some researchers to suggest. Anamensis is the direct ancestor.
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The tibia fossils are of particular importance because they demonstrate that this entry species walked bipedally. . Both the knee- and ankle-ends of the tibia (shin bone) are thickened and the tibial plateau, where the tibia connects to the femur (thigh bone is larger than in living apes. . These features prove that. Anamensis was a biped because they indicate that more weight was borne on the tibia, a feature requisite for bipedality. . In addition, the shaft of the tibia is straight and the end of this bone that articulates with the ankle is upright in contrast to the angulation found in these regions in living apes. . The configuration of these joints demonstrates that the knee and ankle joints were reorganized to accommodate a bipedal gait. . The single wrist bone. Anamensis suggests that this species had limited ability to rotate the bones of the hand on those of the wrist, similar to later australopiths and species in the genus. Homo, but unlike living apes. .
In addition the front of the mandible is ape-like in shape in side view, receding dissertation backward from top to bottom. . In later hominins, this region of the mandible is more vertically oriented. . due to the large size of the upper canine roots (see above the rims of the nasal opening are rounded;. Afarensis, this rim is sharper. . Finally, similar to that found in living apes, the bony ear opening. Anamensis is relatively small in size. The postcranial elements of,. Anamensis include fossils of the hindlimb ) and forelimb, including portions of the wrist and hand. .
and single-cusped, unlike the smaller and double-cusped condition found in later australopiths the shape of the upper canine (which is symmetrical when viewed from the side, unlike the asymmetrical profile. Canine size is smaller. Anamensi s than in the genus, ardipithecus, but these teeth (especially their roots) are larger than. The skull of,. Anamensis is represented by fossils of the mandible (lower jaw maxilla (the bone that comprises the upper jaw and the majority of the face and a single temporal bone (the bone that surrounds the ear and forms part of the side of the skull). . like the teeth, these skull fossils bear many primitive, ape-like features. . The dental arcade is generally u-shaped when viewed from above, with the molars and premolars located directly behind the canines. . This ape-like shape contrasts with the more parabolic-shaped dental arcade found. Afarensis and later hominins. .
Anamensis provides a glimpse of the evolutionary changes that represent the transition from earlier, more primitive (i.e., ape-like) hominins—such as Ardipithecus ramidus—to later, more derived (i.e., human-like) species—such. Anamensis is represented by both cranial and postcranial (ifrom the parts of the skeleton other than the skull) remains, fossils representing the skull outnumber those of the limbs and trunk. . Fossils of the jaws and teeth are particularly well represented. Anamensis possesses some features in the dentition—i. E., relatively large, broad premolars and molars database with relatively thick tooth enamel—that are shared with other species in the genus. Australopithecus and early fossil representatives of the genus. Other features found in the teeth. Anamensis, however, differ from those found in later species in the genus. Australopithecus and more closely resemble the condition found in living apes. .
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Customize your weather, set your Location: Enter City and State or Zip Code. Your weather is set. You can change the with location at any time. M quick look, current, tonight, tomorrow. Australopithecus anamensis, fossils attributed to, australopithecus anamensis (which means southern ape of the lake from anam, meaning lake in the turkana language) have been recovered from sediments at Kanapoi and Allia bay near lake turkana in Kenya. . These fossils, which have been dated to between.2 and.9 million years ago using radioisotopic dating methods applied to volcanic sediments, are significant because they represent the earliest indisputable evidence of obligate bipedality in the human fossil record. . In addition, the morphology of the skull.