As a well-known poison from ancient times, aconite is well-suited for historical fiction. It is the poison used by a murderer in the third of the cadfael Chronicles, monk's hood by Ellis Peters, published in 1980 and set in 1138 in Shrewsbury. In i, claudius, livia, wife of Augustus, was portrayed discussing the merits, antidotes, and use of aconite with a poisoner. It also makes a showing in alternate history novels and historical fantasy, such. Stirling's, On the Oceans of Eternity, where a renegade warlord is poisoned with aconite-laced food by his own chief of internal security, and in the television show Merlin, the lead character, merlin, attempts to poison Arthur with aconite while under a spell. In the 2003 Korean television series dae jang geum, set in the 15th and 16th centuries, Choi put wolf's bane in the previous queen's food. Aconite also lends itself to use as a fictional poison in modern settings. An overdose of aconite was the method in which Rudolph Bloom, father of leopold Bloom in James joyce 's Ulysses, committed suicide.
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Gymnandrum " has now been reassigned to a new genus, gymnaconitum. To make delphinium monophyletic, the new genus Staphisagria was erected containing. 27 Species edit bolt natural hybrids edit Aconitum austriacum Aconitum cammarum Aconitum hebegynum Aconitum oenipontanum (. Paniculatum ) Aconitum pilosiusculum Aconitum platanifolium (. Vulparia ) Aconitum zahlbruckneri (. Variegatum ) In media edit As a poison edit Aconite has been understood as a poison from ancient times, and is frequently represented as such in fiction. In Greek mythology, the goddess Hecate is said to have invented aconite, 29 which Athena used to transform Arachne into a spider. 30 Also, medea attempted to poison Theseus with a cup of wine poisoned with wolf's bane. 31 The kyōgen (traditional Japanese comedy) play busu "Dried aconite root 32 which is well-known and frequently taught in Japan, is centered on dried aconite root used for traditional Chinese medicine. Taken from Shasekishu, a 13th-century anthology collected by mujū, the story describes servants who decide that the dried aconite root is really sugar, and suffer unpleasant though nonlethal symptoms after eating. 33 Shakespeare, in Henry iv part ii act 4 Scene 4 refers to aconite, alongside rash gunpowder, working as strongly as the "venom of suggestion" to break up close relationships.
It increases influx of sodium through these channels and delays repolarization, thus increasing excitability and promoting ventricular dysrhythmias. Medicinal use edit Plant as used in Chinese-style herbology (in Japanese) ( crude medicine ) Aconite has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine and ayurveda. Aconite was also described in Greek and Roman medicine by Theophrastus, dioscorides, and Pliny the paper Elder, who most likely prescribed the Alpine species Aconitum lycoctonum. Folk medicinal use of Aconitum species is still practiced in some parts of Slovenia. 23 Aconitum chasmanthum is listed as critically endangered, 24 Aconitum heterophyllum as endangered, 25 and Aconitum violaceum as vulnerable due to overcollection for ayurvedic use. 26 Taxonomy edit subgenera of Aconitum and related taxa genetic analysis suggests that Aconitum as it was delineated before the 21st century is nested within Delphinium sensu lato, that also includes Aconitella, consolida, delphinium staphisagria,. 1 Further genetic analysis has shown that the only species of the subgenus " Aconitum (Gymnaconitum) ". Gymnandrum is sister to the group that consists of Delphinium (Delphinium), delphinium (Delphinastrum), and " Consolida " plus " Aconitella ". To make aconitum monophyletic, ".
Gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal can be used if given within one hour of ingestion. 21 The major physiological antidote is atropine, which is used to treat bradycardia. Other drugs used for ventricular arrhythmia include lidocaine, amiodarone, bretylium, flecainide, procainamide, and mexiletine. Cardiopulmonary bypass is used if symptoms are refractory to treatment with these drugs. 20 Successful use of charcoal hemoperfusion has been claimed in patients with severe aconitine poisoning. 22 severe toxicity is not expected from skin contact; however paraesthesia has been reported, as has mild toxicity (headache, nausea and palpitations). Aconitine is a potent neurotoxin that opens tetrodotoxin -sensitive summary sodium channels.
This is followed by a sensation of burning, tingling, and numbness in the mouth and face, and of burning in the abdomen. 3 In severe poisonings, pronounced motor weakness occurs and cutaneous sensations of tingling and numbness spread to the limbs. Cardiovascular features include hypotension, sinus bradycardia, and ventricular arrhythmias. Other features may include sweating, dizziness, difficulty in breathing, headache, and confusion. The main causes of death are ventricular arrhythmias and asystole, or paralysis of the heart or respiratory center. 19 20 The only post mortem signs are those of asphyxia. 3 Treatment of poisoning is mainly supportive. All patients require close monitoring of blood pressure and cardiac rhythm.
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Purplish shades range from very dark blue-purple to a very pale lavender that is quite greyish. The latter occurs in the "Stainless Steel" hybrid. Neutral blue (rather than book purplish or greenish greenish blue, and intense blues, available in some related Delphinium plants — particularly delphinium grandiflorum — do not occur in this genus. Aconitum plants that have purplish blue flowers are writer often inaccurately referred to as having blue flowers, even though the purple tone dominates. If there are species with true (neutral) blue or greenish blue flowers they are rare and do not occur in cultivation. Also unlike the genus Delphinium, there are no true or bright red or intense pink Aconitum plants, as none known evolved to be pollinated by hummingbirds. There are no orange-flowered varieties nor are any green-flowered.
Aconitum is typically more intense in color than Helleborus but less intense than Delphinium. There are no black-like flowers in Aconitum, unlike helleborus. Toxicology edit see also: Aconitine monkshood, Aconitum napellus Marked symptoms may appear almost immediately, usually not later than one hour, and "with large doses death is almost instantaneous". Death usually occurs within two to six hours in fatal poisoning (20 to 40 ml of tincture may prove fatal). 19 The initial signs are gastrointestinal, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3 Unlike helleborus and Delphinium, there are no double-flowered hybrid forms. Aconitum plants are typically much longer-lived than the closely related delphinium plants, putting less energy into floral reproduction. As with hellebores and some others in the family, they do not like to be moved once established and seeds that are not planted soon after harvesting should be stored moist-packed in vermiculite to avoid dormancy and viability issues. Cultivars edit In the uk, the following have gained the royal Horticultural Society s Award of Garden Merit :-. 15 'Bressingham Spire' 16 Sparks Variety' 17 'Stainless Steel' 18 Color range edit a medium to dark semi-saturated blue-purple is the typical flower color for Aconitum species.
Aconitum species tend to be variable enough in form and color in the wild to cause debate and confusion among experts when it comes to species classification boundaries. The overall color range of the genus is rather limited, although the palette has been extended a small amount with hybridization. In the wild, some Aconitum blue-purple shades can be very dark. In cultivation the shades do not reach this level of depth. Aside from blue-purple — white, very pale greenish white, creamy white, and pale greenish yellow are also somewhat common in nature. Wine red (or red-purple) occurs in several uncommon or rare Asian species, including a climbing variety. There is a pale semi-saturated pink produced by cultivation as well as bicolor hybrids (e.g. White centers with blue-purple edges).
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Napellus on their arrows to hunt ibex, while the ainu in Japan used a species of Aconitum gender to hunt bear. 11 The Chinese also used Aconitum poisons both for hunting 12 and for warfare. 13 Aconitum poisons were used by the Aleuts of Alaska 's Aleutian Islands for hunting whales. Usually, one man in a kayak armed with a poison-tipped lance would hunt the whale, paralyzing it with the poison and causing it to drown. 14 Cultivation edit The more common species of Aconitum are generally those cultivated in gardens, especially hybrids. They typically thrive in well-drained evenly moist garden soils like the related hellebores and delphiniums, and can grow in the shade of trees. They can be propagated by divisions of the root or by seeds; care should be taken not to leave pieces of the root where livestock might be poisoned. All parts of the plant should be handled while wearing protective disposable gloves.
Satyrata, aterpia charpentierana, and. 8 It is also the primary food source for the Old World bumblebee bombus consobrinus. 9 10 The roots. Ferox supply the nepalese poison called bikh, bish, or nabee. It contains large quantities of the alkaloid pseudaconitine, which is a deadly poison. The root. Luridum, of the himalaya, is said to be as poisonous as that. 3 several species of Aconitum have been used as arrow poisons. The minaro in Ladakh use.
recorded as food plant of the caterpillars of several moths. The yellow tiger moth Arctia flavia, and the purple-shaded gem Euchalcia variabilis are at home. 7 The engrailed Ectropis crepuscularia, yellow-tail Euproctis similis, mouse moth Amphipyra tragopoginis, pease blossom Periphanes delphinii, and Mniotype bathensis, have been observed feeding. The purple-lined sallow Pyrrhia exprimens, and Blepharita amica were found eating from. The dot moth Melanchra persicariae occurs both. The golden plusia polychrysia moneta is hosted. Other moths associated with Aconitum species include the wormwood pug Eupithecia absinthiata, satyr pug.
They are palmate or deeply resume palmately lobed with five to seven segments. Each segment again is trilobed with coarse sharp teeth. The leaves have a spiral (alternate) arrangement. The lower leaves have long petioles. Dissected flower of Aconitum vulparia, showing the nectaries The tall, erect stem is crowned by racemes of large blue, purple, white, yellow, or pink zygomorphic flowers with numerous stamens. They are distinguishable by having one of the five petaloid sepals (the posterior one called the galea, in the form of a cylindrical helmet, hence the English name monkshood. 3 Two to 10 petals are present. The two upper petals are large and are placed under the hood of the calyx and are supported on long stalks. They have a hollow spur at their apex, containing the nectar.
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"Wolf's bane" redirects here. For other uses, see. Aconitum ( /ækənaɪtəm/ 2 commonly known as aconite, monkshood, wolf's bane, leopard's bane, mousebane, women's bane, devil's helmet, queen of poisons, or blue rocket, is a genus of over 250 species of flowering plants belonging to the family, ranunculaceae. These herbaceous perennial plants are chiefly native to the mountainous parts of the northern Hemisphere, 3 growing in the moisture-retentive but well-draining soils of mountain meadows. Most species are extremely poisonous 4 and must be dealt with very carefully. Contents, etymology edit, northern blue monkshood. Noveboracense ) The name aconitum comes from the Greek κόνιτον, which may derive from the Greek akon for dart or javelin, the tips of which were poisoned with the substance, or from akonae, because of the rocky ground on which the plant was thought. 5 The Greek name lycotonum, which translates literally to "wolf's bane is thought to indicate the use of its juice to poison arrows thesis or baits used to kill wolves. 6 Description edit The dark green leaves of Aconitum species lack stipules.