It is also popular amongst the many practitioners of yoga in the west, who find the language helpful for understanding texts such as the yoga sutras of Patanjali. Citation needed symbolic usage edit see also: List of educational institutions which have sanskrit phrases as their mottos and List of institutions which have sanskrit phrases as their mottoes In Nepal, India and Indonesia, sanskrit phrases are widely used as mottoes for various national, educational. 60 Nepal : Janani janmabhoomischa Swargadapi gariyasi meaning: Mother and motherland are superior to heaven. Citation needed Indonesia : citation needed In Indonesia, sanskrit are usually widely used as terms and mottoes of the armed forces and other national organizations (See: Indonesian Armed Forces mottoes ). Rastra sewakottama ( ; people's main Servants) is the official motto of the Indonesian National Police, tri Dharma eka karma ( ) is the official motto of the Indonesian Military, kartika eka paksi ( ; Unmatchable bird with Noble goals) is the official motto. Although Indonesia is a muslim-majority country, it still has major Hindu and Indian influence since pre-historic times until now culturally and traditionally especially in the islands of java and Bali. Many of India's and Nepal's scientific and administrative terms are named in Sanskrit. The Indian guided missile program that was commenced in 1983 by the defence research and development Organisation has named the five missiles (ballistic and others) that it developed Prithvi, agni, akash, nag and the Trishul missile system.
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The samaveda uses musical notations in several of its recessions. 52 In mainland China, musicians such as sa dingding have written pop songs in Sanskrit. 53 In mass media edit over 90 weeklies, fortnightlies and quarterlies are published in Sanskrit. Sudharma, a and daily newspaper in Sanskrit, has been published out of Mysore, india, since 1970, while sanskrit Vartman Patram and Vishwasya vrittantam started in Gujarat during the last five years., there has been a short daily news broadcast on state-run All India radio. 54 These broadcasts are also made available on the internet on air's website. 55 56 Sanskrit news is broadcast on tv and on the internet through the dd national channel at 6:55 am ist. 57 In liturgy edit sanskrit is the sacred language of various Hindu, buddhist, and jain traditions. It writer is used during worship in Hindu temples throughout the world. In Newar Buddhism, it is used in all monasteries, while mahayana and Tibetan Buddhist religious texts and sutras are in Sanskrit as well as vernacular languages. Jain texts are written in Sanskrit, 58 59 including the tattvartha sutra, ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, the Bhaktamara Stotra and the Agamas.
The state of Uttarakhand in India has ruled Sanskrit as its second official language. In October 2012 social activist Hemant Goswami filed a writ petition in the punjab and Haryana high court for declaring Sanskrit as a 'minority' language. Contemporary literature and patronage edit see also: List of Sahitya akademi Award winners for Sanskrit More than 3,000 Sanskrit works have been composed since India's independence in 1947. 48 Much of this work has been judged of high quality, in comparison to both classical Sanskrit literature and modern literature in other Indian languages. 49 50 The sahitya akademi has given an award for the best creative work in Sanskrit every year since 1967. In 2009, satya vrat Shastri became the first Sanskrit author to win the Jnanpith Award, india's highest literary award. 51 In music edit sanskrit is used extensively in the carnatic and Hindustani branches of classical music. Kirtanas, bhajans, stotras, and shlokas of Sanskrit are popular throughout business India.
20 :398 A notable exception are the military references of Nīlakaṇṭha caturdhara 's 17th-century commentary on the mahābhārata. 35 Hatcher argues that modern works continue to be produced in Sanskrit, 36 while according to hanneder, On a more public level the statement that Sanskrit is a dead language is misleading, for Sanskrit is quite obviously not as dead as other dead languages and. Pollock's notion of the "death of Sanskrit" remains in this unclear realm between academia and public opinion when he says that "most observers would agree that, in some crucial way, sanskrit is dead." — Hanneder 37 Hanneder has also argued that modern works in Sanskrit are. 38 When the British imposed a western-style education system in India in the 19th century, knowledge of Sanskrit and ancient literature continued to flourish as the study of Sanskrit changed from a more traditional style into a form of analytical and comparative scholarship mirroring that. 39 Contemporary usage edit As a spoken language edit see also: Sanskrit revival In the 2001 Census of India, 14,135 Indians reported Sanskrit to be their first language. 2 Indian newspapers have published reports about several villages, where, as a result of recent revival attempts, large parts of the population, including children, are learning Sanskrit and are even using it to some extent in everyday communication: Mattur, shimoga district, karnataka 40 Jhiri, rajgarh. 44 In official use edit In India, sanskrit is among the 22 languages of the eighth Schedule to the constitution.
Knowledge of Sanskrit was a marker of social class and educational attainment in ancient India, and the language was taught mainly to members of the higher castes through the close analysis of vyākaraṇins such as the Pāṇini and Patanjali, who exhorted proper Sanskrit at all times. 31 Sanskrit, as the learned language of Ancient India, thus existed alongside the vernacular Prakrits, which were middle Indo-Aryan languages. However, linguistic change led to an eventual loss of mutual intelligibility. A rock inscription at Junagadh added around 150 ce by mahakshatrap Rudradaman i, the saka ( Scythian ) ruler of Malwa, has been described as "the earliest known Sanscrit inscription of any extent 32 as the Ashokan and other early inscriptions were in Prakrit. This "unexpected resurgence as a language of contemporary record" is a sign of a "brahminical renaissance which continued through the gupta period, expanding the usage of Sanskrit. 33 Many sanskrit dramas indicate that the language coexisted with the vernacular Prakrits. In the medieval era, sanskrit speakers were almost always multilingual and well-educated.
They were often learned Brahmins using the language for scholarly communication, a thin layer of Indian society that covered a wide geographical area. Centres like varanasi, paithan, pune and Kanchipuram had a strong presence as teaching and debating institutions, and high classical Sanskrit was maintained until British times. 31 Decline edit There are a number of sociolinguistic studies of spoken Sanskrit which strongly suggest that oral use of modern Sanskrit is limited, having ceased development sometime in the past. 34 Sheldon Pollock argues that "most observers would agree that, in some crucial way, sanskrit is dead ". 20 :393 Pollock has further argued that, while sanskrit continued to be used in literary cultures in India, it was never adapted to express the changing forms of subjectivity and sociality as embodied and conceptualised in the modern age. 20 :416 Instead, it was reduced to "reinscription and restatements" of ideas already explored, and any creativity was restricted to hymns and verses.
23 History edit Origin and development edit sanskrit is a member of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-european family of languages. Its closest ancient relatives are the Iranian languages avestan and Old Persian. 24 25 In order to explain the common features shared by sanskrit and other Indo-european languages, the Indo-Aryan migration theory states that the original speakers of what became sanskrit arrived in the Indian subcontinent from the north-west some time during the early second millennium bce. Evidence for such a theory includes the close relationship between the Indo-Iranian tongues and the baltic and Slavic languages, vocabulary exchange with the non-Indo-european Uralic languages, and the nature of the attested Indo-european words for flora and fauna. 26 The earliest attested Sanskrit texts are religious texts of the rigveda, from the mid-to-late second millennium bce. No written records from such an early period survive, if they ever existed.
However, scholars are confident that the oral transmission of the texts is reliable: they were ceremonial literature whose correct pronunciation was considered crucial to its religious efficacy. 27 From the rigveda until the time of Pāṇini (fourth century bce) the development of the early vedic language can be observed in other Vedic texts: the samaveda, yajurveda, atharvaveda, brahmanas, and Upanishads. During this time, the prestige of the language, its use for sacred purposes, and the importance attached to its correct enunciation all served as powerful conservative forces resisting the normal processes of linguistic change. 28 However, there is a clear, five-level linguistic development of Vedic from the rigveda to the language of the Upanishads and the earliest sutras such as the baudhayana sutras. 19 Standardisation by panini edit The oldest surviving Sanskrit grammar is Pāṇini 's Aṣṭādhyāyī eight-Chapter Grammar written around the 6th-4th centuries bce. It is essentially a prescriptive grammar,. E., an authority that defines Sanskrit, although it contains descriptive parts, mostly to account for some vedic forms that had become rare in Pāṇini 's time. Classical Sanskrit became fixed with the grammar of Pāṇini (roughly 500 bce and remains in use as a learned language through the present day. 29 30 coexistence with vernacular languages edit According to sanskrit linguist Madhav deshpande, when the term "Sanskrit" arose it was not considered a separate language, but rather as a particularly refined or perfected manner of speaking.
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20 A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is found in the book sanskrit of Indian epic poetry —the ramayana and Mahabharata. The deviations from Pāṇini in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits, or innovations, and not because they are pre-paninian. 21 Traditional Sanskrit scholars call such type deviations ārṣa meaning 'of the ṛṣis the traditional title for the ancient authors. In some contexts, there are also more "prakritisms" (borrowings from common speech) than in Classical Sanskrit proper. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit is a literary language heavily influenced by the middle Indo-Aryan languages, based on early buddhist Prakrit texts which subsequently assimilated to the Classical Sanskrit standard in varying degrees. 22 There were four principal dialects of classical Sanskrit: paścimottarī (Northwestern, also called Northern or Western madhyadeśī (lit., middle country pūrvi (Eastern) and dakṣiṇī (Southern, arose in the Classical period). The predecessors of the first three dialects are attested in Vedic Brāhmaṇas, of which the first one was regarded as the purest ( kauṣītaki brāhmaṇa,.6 ).
17 Its position in the cultures of Greater India is akin to that of Latin and Ancient Greek in Europe and it has significantly influenced most modern languages of the Indian subcontinent, particularly in India, bangladesh, pakistan, sri lanka and Nepal. 18 not in citation given vedic Sanskrit edit main article: Vedic Sanskrit Sanskrit, as defined by pāṇini, evolved out of the earlier Vedic form. The present form of Vedic Sanskrit can be traced back to as early as the second millennium bce (for Rig-vedic ). 15 Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or "Pāṇinian" Sanskrit as separate dialects. Although they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology, vocabulary, grammar and syntax. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the vedas, a large collection of hymns, incantations ( Samhitas ) and theological and religio-philosophical discussions in the Brahmanas and Upanishads. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the rigveda samhita to be the earliest, composed by many authors over several centuries of oral tradition. The end of the vedic period is marked by the composition of the Upanishads, which form the concluding part of the traditional Vedic corpus; however, the early sutras are vedic, too, both in language and content. 19 Classical Sanskrit edit for nearly 2,000 years, sanskrit was the language of a cultural order that exerted influence across south Asia, inner Asia, southeast Asia, and to a certain extent East Asia.
the Indian government to develop the language. It continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the form of hymns and chants. Contents Ancient Sanskrit on Hemp based Paper. Hemp Fiber was commonly used in the production of paper from 200 bce to the late 1800's. The sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- may be translated as "refined, elaborated". 14 As a term for refined or elaborated speech, the adjective appears only in Epic and Classical Sanskrit in the manusmṛti and the mahabharata. Citation needed The language referred to as saṃskṛta was the cultured language used for religious and learned discourse in ancient India, in contrast to the language spoken by the people, prākṛta - (prakrit) "original, natural, normal, artless". 14 Variants edit The pre-Classical form of Sanskrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit, with the language of the rigveda being the oldest and most archaic stage preserved, dating back to the early second millennium bce. 15 16 Classical Sanskrit is the standard register as laid out in the grammar of Pāṇini, around the fourth century bce.
9, sanskrit is a standardised dialect. Old Indo-Aryan, having originated in the 2nd millennium bce as, vedic Sanskrit and shredder tracing its linguistic ancestry back to the. Proto-Indo-Aryan language (from which Vedic Sanskrit differs marginally proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-european language. 10 Closest recorded languages are mitanni-Aryan and Old avestan. As arguably the oldest Indo-european language for which substantial written documentation exists (competing with Hittite, luwian, and Old avestan ) Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-european studies. 11 The body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and religious texts. The compositions of Sanskrit were orally transmitted for much of its early history by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity, rigour and fidelity. 12 13 Thereafter, variants and derivatives of the Brahmi script came to be used. Sanskrit is today mainly written in the devanagari script.
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For other uses, essay see, sanskrit (disambiguation). Sanskrit ( /sænskrɪt/ ; iast : Saṃskṛtam səskrtəm a ) is the primary liturgical language of, hinduism ; a philosophical language of, hinduism, buddhism and. Jainism ; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India. 6, as a result of transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture. Southeast Asia and parts of, central Asia, it was also a language of high culture in some of these regions during the early medieval era. 7 8, when Sanskrit had stopped being used as a main language and lingua franca, it was only spoken and used by people of the higher class. It was also used as a court language in some kingdoms of south Asia after Sanskrit became a language for the upper class.