13 This model, however, failed to hold up under scholarly and scientific critique, largely due to the fact that it fails to account for the often rapid or automatic nature of emotional responses (Marsella gratch 2009). 14 Further addressing the concerns raised with structural and cyclical models of appraisal, two different theories emerged that advocated a process model of appraisal. Two-process model of appraisal edit Smith and Kirby (2000) 15 argue for a two-process model of appraisal, which expands on the function of the structural model of appraisal. While the structural model of appraisal focuses on what one is evaluating, the process model of appraisal focuses on how one evaluates emotional stimuli. There are three main components to the process model of appraisal: perceptual stimuli, associative processing, and reasoning. Perceptual stimuli are what the individual picks up from his or her surroundings, such as sensations of pain or pleasure, perception of facial expression (Smith kirby 2000). In addition to these stimuli, the process model is composed to two main appraisal processes. Associative processing is a memory-based process that makes quick connections and provides appraisal information based on activated memories that are quickly associated with the given stimulus (Marsella gratch 2009).
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If a person appraises a situation as motivationally relevant, motivationally incongruent, and also holds a person other than himself accountable, the individual would most likely experience anger in response to the situation (Smith haynes, 1993). Another example of the appraisal components of an emotion can be given in regards to anxiety. Like anger, anxiety comes from the evaluation of a situation as motivationally relevant and motivationally incongruent (lazarus, 1991). 12 However, where anxiety differs from anger is in who is held accountable. For anger, another person or group of people is held accountable or blamed for a wrongdoing. However, in regards to anxiety, there letter is no obvious person or group to hold accountable or to blame. The structural model of appraisal allows for researchers to assess different appraisal components that lead to different emotions. Process model edit Appraisal theory, however, has often been critiqued for failing to capture the dynamic nature of emotion. To better analyze the complexities of emotional appraisal, social psychologists have sought to further complement the structural model. One suggested approach was a cyclical process, which moves from appraisal to coping, and then reappraisal, attempting to capture a more long-term theory of emotional responses (Smith lazarus 1990).
Again, the emotions people experience are influenced by how they perceive their ability to perform emotion-focused coping. The fourth component of secondary appraisal is one's future expectancy (lazarus, writings 1991). 12 Future expectancy refers to one's expectations of change in the motivational congruence of a situation (for any reason). Thus, an individual may believe the situation will change favorably or unfavorably (lazarus, 1991). One's future expectancy influences the emotions elicited during a situation as well as the coping strategies used. The structural model of appraisal suggests that the answers to the different component questions of the primary and secondary categories allow researchers to predict which emotions will be elicited from a certain set of circumstances. In other words, the theory suggests that researchers are able to examine an individual's appraisal of a situation and then predict the emotional experiences of that individual based upon his or her views of the situation. An example of a particular emotion and its underlying appraisal components can be seen when examining the emotion of anger.
A person can hold herself, another, or a group of other people accountable for the situation at hand. Blame may be given for a harmful event and credit may be given for a beneficial event (lazarus, 1991). 12 In addition, an individual might also see the situation as due to chance. The way in which people view who or what should be held accountable directs and guides their efforts to cope with the emotions they experience. Another aspect of secondary appraisal is a person's coping potential. Coping potential is potential to use either problem-focused coping or emotion-focused coping strategies to handle an emotional experience. 5 Problem-focused coping refers to one's ability to take action and to change a situation to make it more congruent with one's goals (Smith kirby, 2009). Thus, a person's belief about their ability to perform problem-focused coping influences the emotions they experience in the situation. On the other hand, emotion-focused coping refers to one's ability to handle or adjust to the situation should the circumstances remain inconsistent with one's goals (Smith kirby, 2009).
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Lazarus suggests that different emotions are elicited when situations are evaluated differently according to these three categories. In order to evaluate each emotion individually, however, a structural model of appraisal is necessary (lazarus, 1991). This model allows for the individual components of the appraisal process to be determined for each emotion. In addition, this model allows for the evaluation of how and where the appraisal processes differ for different emotions (lazarus, 1991). Primary appraisal edit The appraisal process is broken up into two different categories, primary appraisal and secondary appraisal (lazarus, 1991). In a person's primary appraisal, he or she evaluates two aspects of a situation: the motivational viperes relevance and the motivational congruence (Smith kirby, 2009). 5 When evaluating motivational relevance, an individual answers the question, "How relevant is this situation to my needs?" Thus, the individual evaluates how important the situation is to his or her well-being.
The motivational relevance aspect of the appraisal of the process has been shown to influence the intensity of the experienced emotions so that when a situation is highly relevant to one's well-being, the situation elicits a more intense emotional response (Smith kirby, 2009). The second aspect of an individual's primary appraisal of a situation is the evaluation of motivational congruence. When evaluating the motivational congruence of a situation, an individual answers the question, "Is this situation congruent or incongruent (consistent or inconsistent) with my goals?" (Smith kirby, 2009). 5 Individuals experience different emotions when they view a situation as consistent with their goals than when they view it as inconsistent. Secondary appraisal edit people's emotions are also influenced by their secondary appraisal of situations. Secondary appraisal involves people's evaluation of their resources and options for coping (lazarus, 1991). 12 One aspect of secondary appraisal is a person's evaluation of who should be held accountable.
219) 10 These two aspects are absolutely crucial in defining the reactions that stem from the initial emotions that underlie the reactions. Moreover, lazarus specified two major types of appraisal methods which sit at the crux of the appraisal method: 1) primary appraisal, directed at the establishment of the significance or meaning of the event to the organism, and 2) secondary appraisal, directed at the assessment. 10 These two types go hand in hand as one establishes the importance of the event while the following assesses the coping mechanisms which lazarus divided up into two parts: direct actions and cognitive reappraisal processes. To simplify lazarus's theory and emphasize his stress on cognition, as you are experiencing an event, your thought must precede the arousal and emotion (which happen simultaneously). 11 For example: you are about to give a speech in front of 50 of your peers. Your mouth goes dry, your heart beat quickens, your palms sweat, and your legs begin to shake and at the same time you experience fear.
Varieties edit Structural model edit Transactional Model of Stress and Coping of Richard lazarus The structural model of appraisal helps to explain the relation between appraisals and the emotions they elicit. This model involves examination of the appraisal process as well as examination of how different appraisals influence which emotions are experienced. According to lazarus (1991 12 theories of emotion involve a relational aspect, a motivational aspect, and a cognitive aspect (lazarus, 1991). The relational aspect involves the relationship between a person and the environment and suggests that emotions always involve an interaction between the two (lazarus, 1991). The motivational aspect involves an assessment of the status of one's goals and is the aspect of the evaluation of a situation in which a person determines how relevant the situation is to his or her goals (lazarus, 1991). Finally, the cognitive component involves one's appraisal of the situation, or an evaluation of how relevant and significant a situation is to one's life (lazarus, 1991).
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Emotion is a difficult concept to define as emotions are constantly changing for each individual, but Arnold's continued advancements and changing theory led her to keep researching her work within appraisal theory. Furthermore, the 1970s proved to be difficult as fellow researchers challenged her theory with questions pdf concerning the involvement of psycho physiological factors and the psychological experiences at the loyola symposium on feelings and Emotions. 9 Despite this and re-evaluating the theory, arnold's discoveries paved the way for other researchers to learn about variances of emotion, affect, and their relation to each other. Richard lazarus edit following close to magda Arnold in terms of appraisal theory examination was Richard lazarus who continued to research emotions through appraisal theory before his death in 2002. Since he began researching in the 1950s, this concept evolves and expands to include new research, methods, and procedures. Although Arnold had a difficult time with questions, lazarus and other researchers discussed the biopsychological components of the theory at the loyola symposium towards a cognitive theory of Emotion. 10 Specifically, he identified two essential factors in an essay in which he discusses the cognitive aspects of emotion: "first, what is the nature of the cognitions (or appraisals) which underlie separate emotional reactions (e.g. Fear, guilt, grief, joy, etc.). Second, what are the determining antecedent conditions of these cognitions." (lazarus, averill, opton (1970,. .
The two main theories of appraisal are the structural model and the process model. These models are broken down into subtypes as well (Smith kirby, 2009). 5 Researchers have attempted to specify particular appraisals of events that elicit emotions (Roseman., 1996). 6 Magda Arnold edit dating back to the 1940s and 1950s, magda Arnold took an avid interest in researching the appraisal of emotions accompanying general arousal. Specifically, arnold wanted to "introduce the idea of emotion differentiation by postulating that emotions such as fear, anger, and excitement could paper be distinguished by different excitatory phenomena" (Arnold, 1950). 7 With these new ideas, she developed her "cognitive theory" in the 1960s, which specified that the first step in emotion is an appraisal of the situation. 8 According to Arnold, the initial appraisals start the emotional sequence and arouse both the appropriate actions and the emotional experience itself, so that the physiological changes, recognized as important, accompany, but do not initiate, the actions and experiences (Arnold, 1960a). 9 A notable advancement was Arnold's idea of intuitive appraisal in which she describes emotions that are good or bad for the person lead to an action. For example, if a student studies hard all semester in a difficult class and passes the tough mid-term exam with an "A the felt emotion of happiness will motivate the student to keep studying hard for that class.
theory has expanded exponentially with the dedication of two prominent researchers: Magda Arnold and Richard lazarus, amongst others who have contributed appraisal theories. The question studied under appraisal theories is why people react to things differently. Even when presented with the same, or a similar situation all people will react in slightly different ways based on their perception of the situation. These perceptions elicit various emotions that are specific to each person. About 30 years ago, psychologists and researchers began to categorize these emotions into different groups. This is where cognitive appraisal theory stems from. They decided to categorize these emotional reaction behaviors as appraisals.
3, there are two basic approaches; the structural approach and process model. These models both provide an explanation for the appraisal of emotions and explain in different ways how emotions can develop. In the absence of physiological arousal we decide how to feel about a situation after we have interpreted and explained the phenomena. Thus the sequence of events is as follows: event, thinking, and simultaneous events of arousal and emotion. Social psychologists have used this theory to explain and predict coping mechanisms and people's essay patterns of emotionality. By contrast, for example, personality psychology studies emotions as a function of a person's personality, and thus does not take into account the person's appraisal, or cognitive response, to a situation. Example needed, the main controversy surrounding these theories argues that emotions cannot happen without physiological arousal. History edit, for the past several decades, appraisal theory has developed and evolved as a prominent theory in the field of communication and psychology by testing affect and emotion.
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Appraisal theory is the theory in psychology that emotions are extracted from our evaluations (appraisals or estimates) of events that cause specific reactions in different people. Essentially, our appraisal of a situation causes an emotional, or affective, response that is going to be based on that appraisal. 1, an example of this is going on a first date. If the date is perceived as positive, one might feel happiness, joy, giddiness, excitement, and/or anticipation, because they have appraised this event as one that could have positive long-term effects,. Starting a new relationship, engagement, or even marriage. On the other hand, if the date is perceived negatively, then our emotions, as a result, might include dejection, sadness, emptiness, or fear. (Scherer., 2001) 1, reasoning and understanding of one's emotional reaction becomes important for future appraisals as well. The important aspect of the appraisal theory is that it yardage accounts for individual variances of emotional reactions to the same event. 2, appraisal theories of emotion are theories that state that emotions result from people's interpretations and explanations of their circumstances even in the absence of physiological arousal (Aronson, 2005).