A deeper Form of understanding literature is practicing the proper criticism mentioned above, not only experiencing literature but also defining, classifying, analysing, interpreting and evaluating. Although the direct experience of literature has a precritical function according to Fryes opinion, works of literature differ in the extent to which they subordinate the critical faculty during the experience of reading or listening, so that in comedy and romance direct experience is not. What he means is that the Iliad critic is closer to critical activity during his direct experience than the Odyssey critic. The first mentioned sees the literary work as a reflection of real life and his theory is based on plausibility. The Odyssey critic concentrates more on the likelihood of the work, which remains in the minds of the reader or spectator, accepting the given truth in the story and without examining its plausibility. Considering Shakespeares comedy and romance, i have asked myself if we are also compelled to accept his conventions totally, without asking questions about the plausibility of the plot. According to Fryes theory, shakespeare does not ask his audience to accept an illusion: he asks them to listen to the story20. In the same time he does not allow his audience to raise questions.
A midsummer Nights Dream Summary
He compares Shakespeares romances to bachs The Art of Fugue and The musical Offering, describing them as not retreats into pedantry, but final articulation of craftsmanship16. Getting back to the Abrams definition of criticism, we have already defined and classified Shakespearian comedy and romance. The next step according to Abram will be to analyse the selected work. Analysing a work of literature means to define its structure and to determine its conventions. The word are structure seems to be a key word within criticism. The word structure is, according to northrop Frye, a metaphor from architecture, which has become applied to literary criticism partly as the result of a curious phenomenon in criticism itself17. Frye argues that the arts of poetry and music move in time. In the same way the reader of a novel or a spectator of a play is also following a movement in time. Frye distinguishes here between the practice of proper criticism and the direct experience of literature which precedes it18. The direct experience of literature represents the first key to understanding a literary work without paying attention to its structure and conventions.
The literary critics may reject the convention, Frye assumes, by considering all the individual works belonging to it being all alike. They prefer another type of literature, namely the instructive literature, near to reality, which offers them the possibility to analyse and interpret it through their own precritical experience and to find answers to their fundamental questions toward the reality of life. Concerning the difference made by the distinction book of critics in approaching Shakespeare, northrop Frye notes that the critic interested primarily in tragedy, irony and realism would probably, in Shakespeares own day, have considered Ben Jonson a more serious, at any rate in comedy13. Jonsons comedies, if not realistic plays, still maintain a fairly consistent illusion14, assumes Frye comparing them to Shakespeares comedies and romances. Shakespeare never fails to include something incredible in the story, like fairies, magical forests, etc. Shakespeares comedies and romances represent a world of mythical elements which make us forget the objective reality for a moment, but in the meantime bringing us back to our sentimental roots, awaking in us our subjective reality, our feelings and our emotional experience. The fairy world and the magical forests may have been used by Shakespeare not only to create a magic world but also to emphasize the eternal reality of being human, with our entire positive and negative life experiences, for the emotional part has been forgotten. The Iliad critics will see the height of Shakespearean achievement in the great tragedies and feel, like frye assumes, that the romances of the final period represent an exhaustion of vitality or a subsiding into more facile and commercial formulas15. Frye considers himself an Odyssey critic and sees in the Shakespeares late romance, his genuine culmination.
His distinction implies two traditional dates functions of literature: to delight and to instruct. In this sense Frye resumes makes a distinction between a kind of literature represented by the kind of detective stories, etc. And on the other hand the instructive literature. A detective story for instance will always be read for the sake of reading, following attentively the plot of the story, being interested in the climax of the story and not necessarily in the stylistic meaning. The reader will accept the convention and will not think about whether the story is plausible or not. He is only interested in whats going to happen in the story. This kind of literature has the function to delight and to relax the reader. A first critical principle northrop Frye notices is that the most obviously conventionalized fictions are the easiest to read.10 A second critical principle mentioned by Frye is that if the general shape and structure of the story is prescribed in advance, then the literary merits. What he means is that those literary merits of the story illustrate the authors rhetorical skill in working within his conventions12.
He doesnt consider Shakespeares work an achieved unity of meanings7 like the new Critics would do, neither a galaxy of signifiers8 such as in a deconstructive way. Shakespeares comedy represents a world of its own, a world that lives and breathes, a world full of feelings and sentimentalism. Getting from defining to classifying Shakespearian comedy, we will see that there are several ways achieving. Northrop Frye uses dichotomy in order to classify the comedy, focusing on some oversimplified statements as differentiating Platonists from Aristotelians, girls from boys, liberals from conservatives and in the same way iliad critics from Odyssey critics. He explains the last dichotomy asserting that: interest in literature tends to center either in the area of tragedy, realism and irony or in the area of comedy and romance9. With other words the Iliad critics tend to concern with tragedy and Odyssey critics with comedy and romance. Based on the same kind of dichotomy Frye distinguishes two types of literature.
A midsummer Night's Dream Summary
My interpretation will try to combine the applied literary theories, the psychological and religious aspects of the plays as well as discovering a new perspective, namely the merge of generations reading Shakespeare by getting the old and the new ones together. Shakespeare uses in his work both archaic and modern elements and achieves through this perfect combination the highest level of a career as a dramatist. Reading Shakespeare its like discovering the complexity of the universe, with all its wonderful and terrible experiences. Northrop Fryes a natural goal Perspective.1. An introduction into Shakespearean Comedy and Romance As mentioned above, i will dedicate this chapter to one of my favourite critics, northrop Frye, dealing with the critical principals he points out on Shakespearian comedy in his book a natural Perspective. But before speaking about the critical principles Northrop Frye deals with, i would like to give a short definition of criticism, in order to emphasize the importance of critical reading and the influence of the critical principles on the different ways of understanding literature.
Abrams describes criticism as the overall term for studies concerned with defining, classifying, analyzing, interpreting and evaluating works of literature4. As we see the first step in applying criticism is defining the literary work. Concerning Shakespearian Comedy and Romance, northrop Frye describes the comedies as an apart world: Each play of Shakespeare is a world in itself, so complete and satisfying a world that is easy, delightful and profitable to get lost.5 Frye continuous describing the comedies. Moreover he asserts the that the comedies seem more like a number of simultaneous chase games played by a master who wins them all by devices familiar to him, and gradually, with patient study, to us, but which remain mysteries of an unfathomable skill6. According to northrop Fryes definition on Shakespearian comedy, i think he approaches it in a romantic and imperialistic way.
Further on I will deal with the first comedy i have chosen, a midsummer Nights Dream considering on the one hand the mythological perspective and on the other hand the political and last but not least the psychoanalytical approach. Moreover I will try to demonstrate that a midsummer Nights Dream can also be seen as an allegory of Shakespeares early age, maybe as a come back on the stage. My fourth chapter will deal with a second comedy i have selected, The tempest which seems to be the opposite of the first one by representing an allegory of Shakespeares retire from the stage. There are a lot of interpretations of The tempest ; some critics describe The tempest as a paradigm of colonization, other just as a nice fairytale. My purpose will be to analyze all the mentioned theories and to find my own interpretation. My way to approach The tempest is a psychological one.
In my opinion Shakespeares tempest represents his own life, his passion and love for the theatre and his dedication to his work. His tempest ceased together with his retire from the wonderful fairy island, he describes in the romantic comedy with the same name. This theory i support will be found in the sixth chapter of this paper, which shall contain my personal notes on the selected comedies. Before revealing my own interpretation, i will accord my attention in chapter five to the new critical approaches on Shakespeare. The modern theories I will try to apply on Shakespearean comedy are new Criticism, deconstruction, new Historicism and Cultural materialism. By mentioning I will try to apply these theories I mean that some of the new critical approaches cannot be applied on Shakespeares work, for an approach of Shakespeares texts without the implication of the author cannot be accepted. According to my theory, shakespeares work cannot be approached without considering Shakespeares perceptible personality in all his dramatic work. This would be the case of trying to apply deconstruction on Shakespeare. I will use the last chapter of this paper in order to reveal my own perspective on Shakespeare and the two selected comedies.
A midsummer Night's Dream
My main purpose in this paper is to demonstrate general that Shakespeares comedy does not only have a delighting function but also exercises a deep psychological impact on the old and new generations. In my opinion he was not only a genius of the drama, but also an initiator of the renaissance of mythical and archaic values in the modern world. Through his work he gave us a possible definition of being human and convinced us about the universal complexity of the mankind. 1.2 Methodology, after the short introduction concerning the reason for my desire analyzing Shakespearean comedy, i would now like to continue explaining the methods I will use in my paper. First of all I will give an introduction into the Shakespeares comedy world. This introduction will be based on Northrop Fryes study on the development of Shakespearean comedy and romance in his book. A natural perspective. While introducing Shakespeares comedy and romance i will also introduce some of the critical principals, northrop Frye refers to in the book mentioned above and of course those one that i am going to apply in my paper.
I do not intend to elements find out his personal message in the drama or to interpret his intentions. I will rather concentrate on his work and try to find out, what kind of message Shakespeares comedy transmitted to his audience and above all to his experienced readers, better said, to his literary critics. My paper shall reveal the complexity and the deep psychological meaning of Shakespeares comedy. Returning to my first question why Shakespeare? I would like to answer it, by"ng one of my favourite critics, northrop Frye: For all that has been written about it, Shakespearean comedy still seams to me widely misunderstood and underestimated, and my main thesis, that the four romances are the inevitable and. I consider Fryes assumption on Shakespearean comedy the adequate answer to my question. In this paper i intend to seek the deep sense. A midsummer Nights Dream and, the tempest, by posting them in a mirror of changing critical approaches, beginning with the mythological view, continuing with the political and new critical perspective and ending with my personal notes.
simple, dealing with human and social themes like love, marriage, murder, intrigue, complot and revenge. On a first sight, they remember us of a good and entertaining Hollywood Film. But is this all what Shakespeare has to say through his drama? Did he really intend to write commercial plays, without giving a deeper sense to his literary work? I dont think. I think Shakespeare achieved through his simple plots to get deeply in to the minds and souls of his audience, in order to make them conceive the complexity of their own lives and feelings.
A midsummer Nights Dream in a mirror of psychological and psychoanalytic criticism. Chapter 4: The tempest.1. The postcolonial perspective, the tempest a paradigm of colonization? The tempest an allegory on Shakespeares retirement from the theatre? Chapter 5: New critical approaches on Shakespeares comedy.1 A short introduction into the modern Theories of Literature.2 New Criticism.3 Deconstruction.4 New criticism, deconstruction and Shakespeare. Chapter 6: Personal view, selected works. Shakespeare is one of the most analysed and criticised poet in the history london of literature.
A midsummer Night's Dream (2017) - imdb
Table of contents, chapter 1: Introduction.1. Why Shakespeares comedy.2. Methodology, chapter 2: Northrop Fryes, a natural Perspective.1. An introduction into Shakespearean Comedy and Romance. Chapter 3: a midsummer Nights Dream.1. The mythological perspective.3. The political perspective an write approach of new historical view.4.