Sleep apnea essay

sleep apnea essay

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4 Gender dysphoria edit further information: Gender dysphoria dsm-iv gender identity disorder is similar to, but not the same as, gender dysphoria in dsm-5. Separate criteria for children, adolescents and adults that are appropriate for varying developmental states are added. Subtypes of gender identity disorder based on sexual orientation were deleted. 4 Among other wording changes, criterion a and criterion B (cross-gender identification, and aversion toward ones gender) were combined. 4 Along with these changes comes the creation of a separate gender dysphoria in children as well as one for adults and adolescents. The grouping has been moved out of the sexual disorders category and into its own. The name change was made in part due to stigmatization of the term "disorder" and the relatively common use of "gender dysphoria" in the gid literature and among specialists in the area.

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4 Circadian rhythm sleepwake disorders were expanded to include advanced sleep phase syndrome, irregular sleepwake type, and non-24-hour sleepwake type. 4 Jet lag was removed. 4 Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and restless legs syndrome are each a disorder, instead of both being listed under "dyssomnia not otherwise specified" in dsm-iv. 4 Sexual dysfunctions edit dsm-5 essay has sex-specific sexual dysfunctions. 4 For females, sexual desire and arousal disorders are combined into female sexual interest/arousal disorder. 4 Sexual dysfunctions (except substance-/medication-induced sexual dysfunction) now require a duration of approximately 6 months and more exact severity criteria. 4 A new diagnosis is genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder which combines vaginismus and dyspareunia from dsm-iv. 4 Sexual aversion disorder was deleted. 4 Subtypes report for all disorders include only "lifelong versus acquired" and "generalized versus situational" (one subtype was deleted from dsm-iv). 4 Two subtypes were deleted: "sexual dysfunction due to a general medical condition" and "due to psychological versus combined factors".

22 Requirements for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder were changed from "at least twice weekly for 6 months to at least once weekly over the last 3 months". The criteria for anorexia nervosa were changed; there is no longer a requirement of amenorrhea. "Feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood a rarely used diagnosis in golf dsm-iv, was renamed to avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, and criteria were expanded. 4 Elimination disorders edit no significant changes. 4 Disorders in this chapter were previously classified under disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence in dsm-iv. Now it is an independent classification in dsm. 4 Sleepwake disorders edit "Sleep disorders related to another mental disorder, and sleep disorders related to a general medical condition" were deleted. 4 Primary insomnia became insomnia disorder, and narcolepsy is separate from other hypersomnolence. 4 There are now three breathing-related sleep disorders: obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea, central sleep apnea, and sleep-related hypoventilation.

sleep apnea essay

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Somatization disorder and undifferentiated somatoform disorder were combined to become somatic symptom disorder, a diagnosis which no longer requires a specific number of somatic symptoms. 4 Somatic symptom and related disorders are defined by positive symptoms, and the use of medically unexplained symptoms is minimized, except in the cases of conversion disorder and pseudocyesis (false pregnancy). 4 A new diagnosis is psychological factors affecting other medical conditions. This was formerly found in the dsm-iv chapter "Other Conditions That may be a focus of Clinical Attention". 4 Criteria for conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) were changed. 4 feeding and eating disorders edit Criteria for pica and rumination disorder were changed and can now refer to people of any age. 4 Binge eating disorder graduated from dsm-iv's "Appendix b - criteria sets and Axes Provided for Further Study" into a proper diagnosis.

The requirement for specific subjective emotional reactions (Criterion A2 in dsm-iv) was eliminated because it lacked empirical support for its utility and predictive validity. 13 Previously certain groups, such as military personnel involved in combat, law enforcement officers and other first responders, did not meet criterion A2 in dsm-iv because their training prepared them to not react emotionally to traumatic events. Two new disorders that were formerly subtypes were named: reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder. 4 Adjustment disorders were moved to this new section and reconceptualized as stress-response syndromes. Dsm-iv subtypes for depressed mood, anxious symptoms, and disturbed conduct are unchanged. 4 Dissociative disorders edit somatic symptom and related disorders edit somatoform disorders are now called somatic symptom and related disorders. Patients that present with chronic pain can now be diagnosed with the mental illness somatic symptom disorder with predominant pain; or psychological factors that affect other medical conditions ; or with an adjustment disorder.

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sleep apnea essay

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4 Specific types of phobias became specifiers but are otherwise unchanged. 4 The generalized specifier for social anxiety disorder (formerly, social phobia) changed in favor of a performance only (i.e., public speaking or performance) specifier. 4 Separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism are now classified as anxiety disorders (rather than disorders of early onset). 4 Obsessive-compulsive and related book disorders edit a new chapter on obsessive-compulsive and related disorders includes four new disorders: excoriation (skin-picking) disorder, hoarding disorder, substance-/medication-induced obsessive-compulsive and related disorder, and obsessive-compulsive and related disorder due to another medical condition. 4 Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) moved from "impulse-control disorders not elsewhere classified" in dsm-iv, to an obsessive-compulsive disorder in dsm-5. 4 A specifier was expanded (and added to body dysmorphic disorder and hoarding disorder) to allow for good or fair insight, poor insight, and "absent insight/delusional" (i.e., complete conviction that obsessive-compulsive disorder beliefs are true).

4 Criteria were added to body dysmorphic disorder to describe repetitive behaviors or mental acts that may arise with perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance. 4 The dsm-iv specifier with obsessive-compulsive symptoms moved from anxiety disorders to this new category for obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. 4 There are two new diagnoses: other specified obsessive-compulsive and related disorder, which can include body-focused repetitive behavior disorder (behaviors like nail biting, lip biting, and cheek chewing, other than hair pulling and skin picking) or obsessional jealousy ; and unspecified obsessive-compulsive and related disorder. 4 Trauma- and stressor-related disorders edit posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd) is now included in a new section titled "Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders." 12 The ptsd diagnostic clusters were reorganized and expanded from a total of three clusters to four based on the results of confirmatory. 13 Separate criteria were added for children six years old or younger. 4 For the diagnosis of acute stress disorder and ptsd, the stressor criteria (Criterion A1 in dsm-iv) was modified to some extent.

8 Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders edit All subtypes of schizophrenia were removed from the dsm-5 ( paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual ). 4 A major mood episode is required for schizoaffective disorder (for a majority of the disorder's duration after criterion A related to delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behavior, and negative symptoms such as avolition is met). 4 Criteria for delusional disorder changed, and it is no longer separate from shared delusional disorder. 4 Catatonia in all contexts requires 3 of a total of 12 symptoms. Catatonia may be a specifier for depressive, bipolar, and psychotic disorders; part of another medical condition; or of another specified diagnosis. 4 Bipolar and related disorders edit new specifier "with mixed features" can be applied to bipolar I disorder, bipolar ii disorder, bipolar disorder ned (not elsewhere defined, previously called "nos not otherwise specified) and mdd.


9 Allows other specified bipolar and related disorder for particular conditions. 4 Anxiety symptoms are a specifier (called "anxious distress added to bipolar disorder and to depressive disorders (but are not part of the bipolar diagnostic criteria). 4 Depressive disorders edit Anxiety disorders edit for the various forms of phobias and anxiety disorders, dsm-5 removes the requirement that the subject (formerly, over 18 years old) "must recognize that their fear and anxiety are excessive or unreasonable". Also, the duration of at least 6 months now applies to everyone (not only to children). 4 Panic attack became a specifier for all dsm-5 disorders. 4 Panic disorder and agoraphobia became two separate disorders.

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The new version replaces the nos ( Not Otherwise Specified ) categories with two options: other specified disorder and unspecified disorder to increase the utility to the clinician. The first allows the clinician to specify the reason that the criteria for a specific disorder are not met; the second allows the clinician the option to forgo specification. Dsm-5 has discarded the multiaxial system of diagnosis (formerly Axis i, axis ii, axis iii listing all disorders roles in Section. It has replaced Axis iv with significant psychosocial and contextual features and dropped Axis V (Global Assessment of Functioning, known as gaf). The world health Organization's (WHO) Disability Assessment Schedule is added to section iii (Emerging measures and models) under Assessment measures, as a suggested, but not required, method to assess functioning. Section II: diagnostic criteria and codes edit neurodevelopmental disorders edit " Mental retardation " has a new name: " intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) ". 6 Phonological disorder and stuttering are now called communication disorders —which include language disorder, speech sound disorder, childhood-onset fluency disorder, and a new condition characterized by impaired social verbal and nonverbal communication called social (pragmatic) communication disorder. 6 Autism spectrum disorder incorporates Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (pdd-nos)—see diagnosis of Asperger syndrome dsm-5 changes. 7 A new sub-category, motor disorders, encompasses developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and the tic disorders including tourette syndrome.

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sleep apnea essay

G., enuresis and other elimination disorders, mentioned in Section II: diagnostic criteria and codes (below it means that the diagnostic criteria for those disorders did not change significantly from dsm-iv to dsm-5. Section i edit section I describes parody dsm-5 chapter organization, its change from the multiaxial system, and Section iii's dimensional assessments. 4 The dsm-5 deleted the chapter that includes "disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence" opting to list them in other chapters. 4 A note under Anxiety disorders says that the "sequential order" of at least some dsm-5 chapters has significance that reflects the relationships between diagnoses. 4 This introductory section describes the process of dsm revision, including field trials, public and professional review, and expert review. It states its goal is to harmonize with the icd systems and share organizational structures as much as is feasible. Concern about the categorical system of diagnosis is expressed, but the conclusion is the reality that alternative definitions for most disorders is scientifically premature.

of the members of work groups for the dsm-5 had conflicting interests, including ties to pharmaceutical companies. 2 Various scientists have argued that the dsm-5 forces clinicians to make distinctions that are not supported by solid evidence, distinctions that have major treatment implications, including drug prescriptions and the availability of health insurance coverage. General criticism of the dsm-5 ultimately resulted in a petition, signed by many mental health organizations, which called for outside review of the dsm-5. 3 Contents Changes edit This part of the article summarizes changes from the dsm-iv to the dsm-5. The dsm-5 is divided into three sections, using Roman numerals to designate each Section. The same organizational structure is used in this overview,. G., section I (immediately below) summarizes relevant changes discussed in the dsm-5, section. Note that if a specific disorder (or set of disorders) cannot be seen,.

The development of the new edition began with a conference in 1999 and proceeded with the formation of a task force in 2007, which developed and field-tested a variety of new classifications. In most respects, the dsm-5 is not greatly modified from the dsm-iv-tr; however, some significant differences exist between them. Notable changes in the dsm-5 include the reconceptualization. Asperger syndrome from a distinct disorder to an autism spectrum disorder ; the elimination of subtypes of schizophrenia ; the deletion of the "bereavement exclusion" for depressive disorders ; the renaming of gender identity disorder to gender dysphoria, along with a revised treatment plan; type the. In addition, the dsm-5 is the first dsm to use. Arabic numeral instead of a, roman numeral in its title, as well as the first " living document " version of a dsm. 1, various authorities criticized the fifth edition both before and after it was formally published.

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For further information, see, diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The, diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth Edition dSM-5 ) is the 2013 update to the. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the. American Psychiatric Association (APA). In the United States, the dsm serves as the principal authority for psychiatric diagnoses. Treatment recommendations, as well as payment by health care providers, are often determined by dsm classifications, so the appearance of a new version has significant practical importance. The dsm-5 was published on may 18, 2013, superseding the. Dsm-iv-tr, which was published in 2000.


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