In spring 2000, hazmi and Mihdhar took flying lessons in San diego, california, but both spoke little English, performed poorly with flying lessons, and eventually served as secondary or "muscle" hijackers. 66, a group of men from Hamburg, germany arrived in Afghanistan; the group included Mohamed Atta, marwan al-Shehhi, ziad Jarrah, and Ramzi bin al-Shibh. 68 Bin Laden selected these men because they were educated, could speak english, and had experience living in the west. 69 New recruits were routinely screened for special skills and al-qaeda leaders consequently discovered that Hani hanjour already had a commercial pilot's license. 70 Mohammed later said that he helped the hijackers blend in by teaching them how to order food in restaurants and dress in Western clothing. Hanjour arrived in San diego on December 8, 2000, joining hazmi. 72 :67 They soon left for Arizona, where hanjour took refresher training. 72 :7 Marwan al-Shehhi arrived at the end of may 2000, while Atta arrived on June 3, 2000, and Jarrah arrived on June 27, 2000.
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59 60 Planning main article: Planning of the september 11 attacks Map showing the attacks on the world Trade center (the planes are not drawn to scale) The idea for the attacks came from Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who first presented it to Osama bin ventetid Laden. 61 At that time, bin Laden and al-qaeda were in a period of transition, having just relocated back to Afghanistan from Sudan. Frican Embassy bombings and bin Laden's 1998 fatwā marked a turning point, as bin Laden became intent on attacking the United States. or early 1999, bin Laden gave approval for Mohammed to go forward with organizing the plot. A series of meetings occurred in early 1999, involving Mohammed, bin Laden, and his deputy mohammed Atef. 62 Atef provided operational support for the plot, including target selections and helping arrange travel for the hijackers. 62 Bin Laden overruled Mohammed, rejecting some potential targets such annotated as the. Bank tower in Los Angeles because "there was not enough time to prepare for such an operation". 63 64 diagram showing the attacks on the world Trade center Bin Laden provided leadership and financial support for the plot and was involved in selecting participants. 65 Bin Laden initially selected Nawaf al-hazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar, both experienced jihadists who had fought in Bosnia. Hazmi and Mihdhar arrived in the United States in mid-January 2000.
fatwā, al-qaeda identified the Iraq sanctions as a reason to kill Americans, condemning the "protracted blockade" 48 among other actions that constitute a declaration of war against "Allah, his messenger, and business Muslims." 48 The fatwā declared that "the ruling to kill the Americans and their. 52 53 Some analysts, including mearsheimer and Walt, also claimed that. Support of Israel was one motive for the attacks. 43 49 In 20, bin Laden again connected the september 11 attacks with. Support of Israel, although most of the letter expressed bin Laden's disdain for President Bush and bin Laden's hope to "destroy and bankrupt" the. 54 55 Other motives have been suggested in addition to those stated by bin Laden and al-qaeda, including western support of Islamic and non-Islamic authoritarian regimes in saudi Arabia, iran, Egypt, Iraq, pakistan and northern Africa, and the presence of western troops in some. 56 page needed some authors suggested the "humiliation" that resulted from the Islamic world falling behind the western world this discrepancy was rendered especially visible by the globalization trend 57 58 and a desire to provoke the. Into a broader war against the Islamic world in the hope of motivating more allies to support al-qaeda. Similarly, others have argued that 9/11 was a strategic move with the objective of provoking America into a war that would incite a pan-Islamic revolution.
39 Mohamed Atta, marwan al-Shehhi, ziad Jarrah, ramzi bin al-Shibh, and said Bahaji were all members of al-qaeda's Hamburg cell. 40 Motives main article: Motives for the september 11 attacks Osama bin Laden's declaration of a holy war against the United States, and a 1998 fatwā signed by bin Laden and others, calling for the killing of Americans, 10 are seen by investigators as guaranteed evidence. 41 In bin Laden's november 2002 "Letter to America he explicitly stated that al-qaeda's motives for their attacks include: After the attacks, bin Laden and al-Zawahiri released additional videotapes and audio recordings, some of which repeated those reasons for the attacks. Two particularly important publications were bin Laden's 2002 "Letter to America videotape by bin Laden. 46 Bin Laden interpreted Muhammad as having banned the "permanent presence of infidels in Arabia". 47 In 1996, bin Laden issued a fatwā calling for American troops to leave saudi Arabia. In 1998, al-qaeda wrote, "for over seven years the United States has been occupying the lands of Islam in the holiest of places, the Arabian Peninsula, plundering its riches, dictating to its rulers, humiliating its people, terrorizing its neighbors, and turning its bases in the. 49 One analysis of suicide terrorism suggested that without. Troops in saudi Arabia, al-qaeda likely would not have been able to get people to commit to suicide missions.
25 32 Other al-qaeda members Further information: Trials related to the september 11 attacks In "Substitution for Testimony of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed" from the trial of Zacarias moussaoui, five people are identified as having been completely aware of the operation's details. They are bin Laden, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, ramzi bin al-Shibh, Abu turab al-Urduni, and Mohammed Atef. 33 to date, only peripheral figures have been tried or convicted for the attacks. On September 26, 2005, the Spanish high court sentenced Abu dahdah to 27 years in prison for conspiracy on the 9/11 attacks and being a member of the terrorist organization al-qaeda. At the same time, another 17 al-qaeda members were sentenced to penalties of between six and eleven years. 34 On February 16, 2006, the Spanish Supreme court reduced the Abu dahdah penalty to 12 years because it considered that his participation in the conspiracy was not proven., moussaoui—who some originally suspected might have been the assigned 20th hijacker—was convicted for the lesser role. He was sentenced to life without parole in the United States. 36 37 mounir el-Motassadeq, an associate of the hamburg-based hijackers, is serving 15 years in Germany for his role in helping the hijackers prepare for the attacks. 38 The hamburg cell in Germany included radical Islamists who eventually came to be key operatives in the 9/11 attacks.
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16 Bin Laden said he had personally directed his followers to attack the world Trade center and the pentagon. 12 diary 17 Another video obtained by Al jazeera in September 2006 shows bin Laden with Ramzi bin al-Shibh, as well as two hijackers, hamza al-Ghamdi and wail al-Shehri, as they make preparations for the attacks. Never formally indicted bin Laden for the 9/11 attacks but he was on the fbi's Most Wanted List for the bombings of the. Embassies in Dar es Salaam, tanzania, and nairobi, kenya. 19 20 After a 10-year manhunt, bin Laden was killed by American special forces in a compound in Abbottabad, pakistan on may 2, 2011. 21 22 Khalid Sheikh Mohammed main article: Khalid Sheikh Mohammed Khalid Sheikh Mohammed after his capture in 2003 journalist Yosri fouda of the Arabic television channel Al jazeera reported that, in April 2002, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed admitted his involvement, along with Ramzi bin al-Shibh. The 9/11 Commission Report determined that the animosity towards the United States felt by mohammed, the principal architect of the 9/11 attacks, stemmed from his "violent disagreement with.
Foreign policy favoring Israel". 26 Mohammed was also an adviser and financier of the 1993 World Trade center bombing and the uncle of Ramzi yousef, the lead bomber in that attack. 27 28 Mohammed was arrested on March 1, 2003, in Rawalpindi, pakistan, by pakistani security officials working with the cia. He was then held at multiple cia secret prisons and guantanamo bay where he was interrogated and tortured with methods including waterboarding. Hearings at guantanamo bay in March 2007, mohammed again confessed his responsibility for the attacks, stating he "was responsible for the 9/11 operation from A to Z" and that his statement was not made under duress.
In the video, bin Laden is seen talking to Khaled al-Harbi and admits foreknowledge of the attacks. 14 On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the west in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam. It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people. We say that the end of the United States is imminent, whether Bin Laden or his followers are alive or dead, for the awakening of the muslim umma (nation) has occurred but he stopped short of admitting responsibility for the attacks.
15 The transcript refers several times to the United States specifically targeting Muslims. Shortly before the. Presidential election in 2004, bin Laden used a taped statement to publicly acknowledge al-qaeda's involvement in the attacks on the United States. He admitted his direct link to the attacks and said they were carried out because: we are free. And want to regain freedom for our nation. As you undermine our security, we undermine yours.
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8 In business 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā, calling for American soldiers to leave saudi Arabia. 9 In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in saudi Arabia after the gulf War. 10 Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the muslim countries according to bin Laden. 10 Osama bin Laden Further information: Osama bin Laden, death of Osama bin Laden, and Videos of Osama bin Laden Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and initially denied involvement but later recanted his false statements. 1 11 12 Al jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." 13 In november 2001,. Forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan.
Many closings, evacuations, and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the world Trade center site was completed in may 2002, and the pentagon was repaired within a year. On november 18, 2006, construction of One world Trade center began at the world Trade center site. The building was officially opened on november 3, 2014. 5 6 Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the national September 11 Memorial museum in New York city, the pentagon Memorial in Arlington county, virginia, and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek township near Shanksville, pennsylvania. Contents Background Al-qaeda further information: Al-qaeda and Jihad The origins of al-qaeda can be traced to 1979 when the soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize arab mujahideen to resist the soviets. 7 Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical.
and bin Laden cited. Support of Israel, the presence. Troops in saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for almost a decade, osama bin Laden was located and killed in pakistan by seal team Six of the. Navy in may 2011. The destruction of the world Trade center and nearby infrastructure caused serious harm to the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the. And Canada until September.
Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and, united Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the north and south towers, respectively, of the world Trade center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the world Trade center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures. A third plane, american Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the pentagon (the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense ) in Arlington county, virginia, which led to a biography partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, united Airlines Flight 93, was initially flown toward Washington,. C., but crashed into a field in Stonycreek township near Shanksville, pennsylvania, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 was the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers 4 in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion quickly fell on al-qaeda. The United States responded by launching the war on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the taliban, which had failed to comply with us demands to extradite Osama bin Laden and expel al-qaeda from Afghanistan.
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For the date september 11, see. For the date november 9, see. For the emergency number, see 9-1-1. For other uses, see, september 11 attacks (disambiguation) and 9/11 (disambiguation). The, september 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11 ) a were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the, islamic terrorist group al-qaeda against the United States on the morning of tuesday, september 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least 10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases golf in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major. Passenger air carriers united Airlines and, american Airlines )—all of which departed from airports in the northeastern part of the United States bound for, california —were hijacked by 19 al-qaeda terrorists.