If ten randomly distributed wires in one lay are broken, or five wires in one strand of a rope lay are damaged, the sling must not be used. It is not sufficient, however, to check only the condition of the wire rope. End fittings and other components should also be inspected for any damage that could make the sling unsafe. To ensure safe slin: usage between scheduled inspections, all workers should participate in a safety awareness program. Each operator should keep a close watch on those slings he or she is using. If any accident involving the movement of materials occurs, the operator should immediately shut down the equipment and report the accident to a supervisor. The cause of the accident should be determined and corrected before resuming operations. Although every rope sling is lubricated when manufactured, it also must be lubricated "in the field" to increase the sling's useful service life.
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Many operating jordan conditions affect wire rope life. They are bending, stresses, loading conditions, speed of load application (jerking). Abrasion, corrosion, sling design, materials handled, environmental conditions, and history of previous usage. In addition to the above operating conditions, the weight, size, resume and shape of the loads to be handled also affect the service life of a wire rope sling. Flexibility also is a factor. Generally, more flexible ropes are selected when smaller radius bending is required. Less flexible ropes should be used when the rope must move through or over abrasive materials. Wire rope Sling Inspection. Wire rope slings must be visually inspected before each day's use. The operator should check the twists or lay of the sling.
The best means of preventing fatigue failure of wire rope slings is to use blocking or padding to increase the listing radius of bend. Abrasive wear-The ability of a wire rope to withstand abrasion is determined by the size, number of wires, and construction of the rope. Smaller wires bend more readily and therefore offer greater flexibility but are less able to withstand abrasive wear. Conversely, the larger wires of less flexible ropes are better able to withstand abrasion than are the smaller wires of more flexible ropes. Abuse-All other factors being equal, misuse or abuse of wire rope will cause a wire rope sling to become unsafe long before any other factor. Abusing a wire rope sling can cause serious structural damage to the wire rope, such as kinking or bird caging, which reduces the strength of the wire rope. (In bird caging, the wire rope strands are forcibly untwisted and become spread outward.) so, to prolong the life of the sling and protect the lives of employees, the manufacturer's suggestion for safe and proper use of wire rope slings must be strictly adhered.
This multiplier is the number by which the ultimate strength of a wire estate rope is divided to determine the working load limit. Thus, a wire rope sling with a strength of 10,000 pounds (4,545 kilograms) and a total working load of 2,000 pounds (909 kilograms) has a design factor (multiplier). New wire rope slings have a design factor. As a sling suffers from the rigors of continued service, however, both the design factor and the sling's ultimate strength are proportionately reduced. If a sling is loaded beyond its ultimate strength, it will fail. So, older slings must be more rigorously inspected to ensure that rope conditions adversely affecting the strength of the sling are considered in determining if a wire rope sling should be allowed to continue in service. Fatigue (Bending without failure)-A wire rope must have the ability to withstand repeated bending without the wires failing from fatigue. Fatigue failure of the wires in a wire rope is the result of the development of small cracks from repeated applications of bending loads. It occurs when ropes make small radius bends.
In addition, since the outside wires in lang lay rope lie at an angle to the rope axis, internal stress due to bending over sheaves and drums is reduced causing lang lay ropes to be more resistant to bending fatigue. A left lay rope is one in which the strands form a left-hand helix similar to the threads of a left-hand screw thread. Left lay rope has its greatest usage in oil fields on rod and tubing lines, blast hole rigs, and spudders where rotation of right lay would loosen couplings. The rotation of a left lay rope tightens a standard coupling. Wire rope Sling Selection. When selecting a wire rope sling to give the best service, there are four characteristics to consider: strength, ability to bend without distortion, ability to withstand abrasive wear, and ability to withstand abuse. Strength-The strength of a wire rope is a function of its size, grade, and construction. It must be sufficient to accommodate the applied maximum load. The maximum load limit is determined by means of an appropriate multiplier.
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All sling types must be visually inspected prior to use. When inspecting alloy steel chain slings, pay special attention to any stretching, wear in excess of essay the allowances made by the manufacturer, and nicks and gouges. These signs indicate that the sling may be unsafe and they must be removed from service. Wire rope a second type of sling is made of wire rope. Wire rope is composed of individual wires essay that have been twisted to form strands. Strands are then twisted to form a wire rope. When wire rope has a fiber core, it is usually more flexible but is less resistant to environmental damage.
Conversely, a core that is made of a wire rope strand tends to have greater strength and is more resistant to heat damage. Wire rope may be further defined by the "lay." The lay of a wire rope describes the direction the wires and strands are twisted during the construction of the rope. Most wire rope is right lay, regular lay-which means that the strands pass from left to right across the rope and the wires in the rope are laid opposite in direction to the lay of the strands. This type of rope has the widest range of applications. Lang lay (where the wires are twisted in the same direction as the strands) is recommended for many excavating, construction, and mining applications, including draglines, hoist lines, dredgelines, and other similar lines. Lang lay ropes are more flexible and have greater wearing surface per wire than regular lay ropes.
He or she should cooperate with coworkers and supervisors and become a leader in carrying out safety measures-not merely for the good of the equipment and the production schedule but, more importantly, for the safety of everyone concerned. Sling Types The dominant characteristics of a sling are determined by the components of that sling. For example, the strengths and weaknesses of a wire rope sling are essentially the same as the strengths and weaknesses of the wire rope of which it is made. Slings are generally one of six types: chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural fiber rope, synthetic fiber rope, or synthetic web. In general, use and inspection procedures tend to place these slings into three groups: chain, wire rope and mesh, and fiber rope web.
Each type has its own particular advantages and disadvantages. Factors to consider when choosing the best sling for the job include the size, weight, shape, temperature, and sensitivity of the material to be moved, as well as the environmental conditions under which the sling will be used. Chains Chains are commonly used because of their strength and ability to adapt to the shape of the load. Care should be taken, however, when using alloy chain slings because sudden shocks will damage them. Misuse of chain slings could damage the sling, resulting in sling failure and possible injury to an employee. Chain slings are the best choice for lifting very hot materials. They can be heated to temperatures of up to 1,000 Fahrenheit (538 centigrade however, when alloy chain slings are consistently exposed to service temperatures in excess of 600 Fahrenheit (3 16 centigrade operators must reduce the working load limits in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
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Department of Labor, pursuant to business section 18 of the Act. The programs in these jurisdictions may differ in some details from the federal program. (see list of States with Approved Plans listed at the end of this booklet.) Importance of the Operator The operator must exercise intelligence, care, and common sense when selecting and using slings. Slings must be selected in accordance with their intended use, based upon the size and type of load, and the environmental conditions of the workplace. All slings must be visually inspected before use to ensure their effectiveness. A well-trained operator can prolong the service life of equipment and reduce costs by avoiding the potentially hazardous effects of overloading equipment, operating it at excessive speeds, taking up slack with a sudden jerk, and suddenly accelerating or decelerating equipment. The operator can look for causes and seek corrections whenever a danger exists.
Whenever possible, mechanical means should be used to move materials to avoid employee injuries such as muscle pulls, strains, and sprains. In addition, many loads are too heavy andior bulky to be safely moved manually. Various types of equipment, therefore, have been designed specifically to aid in the movement of materials: cranes, derricks, hoists, powered industrial trucks, and conveyors. Because cranes, derricks, and hoists rely upon slings to hold their suspended loads, slings are the most commonly used materials handling apparatus. This booklet offers information on the proper selection, maintenance, and use of slings. This booklet is designed to assist sling operators to understand and comply with osha's regulation on slings, published on June 27, 1975, in the. Federal book Register under, title 29 Code of Federal Regulations, part 1910.184. All employers should be aware that there are certain states (and similar jurisdictions) which operate their own programs under agreement with the.
to handle materials-to move them from one location to another, whether during transit or at the worksite-is vital to all segments of industry. Materials must be moved, for example, for industry to manufacture, sell, and utilize products. In short, without materials-handling capability, industry would cease to exist. To varying degrees, all employees in numerous workplaces take part in materials handling. Consequently, some employees are injured. In fact, the mishandling of materials is the single largest cause of accidents and injuries in the workplace. Most of these accidents and injuries, as well as the pain and loss of salary and productivity that often result, can be readily avoided.
This information will be made available plan to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 219-8615; Telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) message referral phone. Contents, introduction, importance of the Operator, sling Types. Chains, wire rope, fiber Rope and Synthetic Web, safe lifting Practices. Size, weight, and Center of Gravity of the load. Number of Legs and Angle with the horizontal. Rated Capacity of the Sling, history of Care and Usage, maintenance of Slings. Chains, wire rope, fiber and Synthetic Ropes, summary.
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Department of Labor, robert. Occupational Safety and health Administration, joseph. Dear, Assistant Secretary, osha (revised). This informational booklet is intended to provide a generic, non-exhaustive overview of a particular standards-related topic. This publication does not itself alter or determine compliance responsibilities, which-are set mini forth in osha standards themselves, and in the. Occuparional Safety and health Act. Moreover, because interpretations and enforcement policy may change over time, for additional guidance on osha compliance requirements, the reader should consult current adminisuative interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and health review Commission and the courts. Material contained in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced, fully or partially, without permission of the federal government. Source credit is requested but not required.