Essays for myanmar students

essays for myanmar students

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They came away from this experience with the belief that the burmese situation could be improved through reform. Progressive constitutional reform in the early 1920s led to a legislature with limited powers, a university and more autonomy for Burma within the administration of India. Efforts were also undertaken to increase the representation of Burmese in the civil service. Some people began to feel that the rate of change was not fast enough and the reforms not expansive enough. In 1920 the first university students' strike in history citation needed broke out in protest against the new University Act which the students believed would only benefit the elite and perpetuate colonial rule. 'national Schools' sprang up across the country in protest against the colonial education system, and the strike came to be commemorated as ' national day '. 12 There were further strikes and anti-tax protests in the later 1920s led by the wunthanu athin. Prominent among the political activists were buddhist monks ( hpongyi such as u ottama and u seinda in the Arakan who subsequently led an armed rebellion against the British and later the nationalist government after independence, and u wisara, the first martyr of the movement.

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Thus, although the balance of trade was supposed to be in daily favour of Burma, the society was changed so fundamentally that many people did not gain from the rapidly growing economy. 2 While the burmese economy grew, most of the power and day wealth remained in the hands of several British firms and migrants from India. The civil service was largely staffed by Anglo-burmese and Indians, and the ethnic Burmese were excluded almost entirely from military service, which was staffed primarily with Indians, Anglo-burmese, karens and other Burmese minority groups. A british General Hospital Burmah was set up in Rangoon, under the direction in early 1887 of Surg. Though the country prospered, the burmese people largely failed to reap the rewards. (see george Orwell 's novel Burmese days for a fictional account of the British in Burma.) An account by a british official describing the conditions of the burmese people's livelihoods in 1941 describes the burmese hardships as they must quickly adapt to foreign trade: Foreign. The peasant had grown factually poorer and unemployment had e collapse of the burmese social system led to a decay of the social conscience which, in the circumstances of poverty and unemployment caused a great increase in crime. 11 Nationalist movement edit rangoon and Environ map, 1911 by the turn of the century, a nationalist movement began to take shape in the form of young Men's Buddhist Associations (ymba modelled after the ymca, as religious associations were allowed by the colonial authorities. They were later superseded by the general council of Burmese Associations (gcba) which was linked with Wunthanu athin or National Associations that sprang up in villages throughout Burma Proper. 1911 the "Irish Buddhist" u dhammaloka publicly challenged Christianity and imperial power, leading to two trials for sedition. A new generation of Burmese leaders arose in the early twentieth century from amongst the educated classes that were permitted to go to london to study law.

Rice, which was in high demand fuller in Europe, especially after the building of the suez canal in 1869, was the main crop grown in and exported out of myanmar. To increase the production of rice, many burmese migrated from the northern heartland to the delta, shifting the population concentration and changing the basis of wealth and power. 2 However, to prepare the new land for cultivation, farmers borrowed money from Indian moneylenders called chettiars at high interest rates as British banks wouldn't grant mortgages. The Indian moneylenders offered mortgage loans but foreclosed on them quickly if the borrowers defaulted. At the same time, thousands of Indian labourers migrated to burma and, because of their willingness to work for less money, quickly displaced Burmese farmers, who instead began to take part in crime, giving themselves a bad reputation. 2 Whole villages became outlawed as they resorted to 'dacoity' (armed robbery). With this quickly growing economy came industrialisation to a certain degree, with a railway being built throughout the valley of the Irrawaddy, and hundreds of steamboats travelling along the river. All of these modes of transportation were owned by the British, however.

essays for myanmar students

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The Frontier Areas were inhabited by ethnic minorities such as the Chin, the Shan, the kachin and the karenni. By 1931 Burma had 8 divisions, split into a number of districts. 10 Arakan division ( akyab, arakan Hill, kyaukpyu and Sandoway districts ) Magwe division (Chin Hills, magway, minbu, pakokku and Thayetmyo districts ) Mandalay division ( kyaukse, estate mandalay, meiktila and myingyan Districts ) Tenasserim division ( toungoo, thaton, amherst, salween, tavoy, and Mergui districts ). Photographer: hooper, willoughby wallace (18371912) The traditional Burmese economy was one of redistribution with the prices of the most important write commodities set by the state. Trade itself was not as important as self-sufficient agriculture, but the country's position on major trade routes from India to China meant that it did gain a significant amount of money from facilitating foreign trade. With the arrival of the British, the burmese economy became tied to global market forces and was forced to become a part of the colonial export economy. 2 Burma's annexation ushered in a new period of economic growth. The economic nature of society also changed dramatically. The British began exploiting the rich soil of the land around the Irrawaddy delta and cleared away the dense mangrove forests.

At the same time, the monarchy was given legitimacy by the buddhist organisation, and the "church" gave the public the opportunity to understand national politics to a greater degree. 2 Another way in which the British controlled their new colony directly was through their implementation of a secular education system. The colonial government of India, which was given control of the new colony, founded secular schools teaching in both English and Burmese, while also encouraging Christian missionaries to visit and found schools. In both of these types of schools, buddhism and traditional Burmese culture were frowned upon in an attempt to rid the burmese people of a cultural unity separate from the British. 2 to control the country on the village level, the British implemented a " strategic hamlet " strategy in which they burned villages and uprooted families who had supplied villages with their headmen, sending them to lower Burma. Once these troublesome or unloyal Burmese were forced out, the British replaced them with approved appointees. 2 divisions of British Burma edit The province of Burma, after 1885 was administered as follows: Ministerial Burma (Burma proper) Tenasserim division ( toungoo, thaton, amherst, salween, tavoy, and Mergui districts ) Arakan division ( akyab, northern Arakan or Arakan Hill Tracts, kyaukpyu and Sandoway. They were administered separately by the British with a burma Frontier Service, and later united with Burma proper to form myanmar's geographic composition today.

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essays for myanmar students

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He will never see burma again. Burmese armed resistance continued sporadically for several years and the British commander had to coerce the high court of Justice to continue to function. Though war officially ended after only a couple of weeks, resistance continued in northern Burma until 1890, with the British finally resorting to a systematic destruction of villages and appointment of new officials to finally halt all guerrilla activity. Traditional Burmese society was drastically altered by the demise of the monarchy and the separation of religion and state. Intermarriage between Europeans and Burmese gave birth to an indigenous Eurasian community known as the Anglo-burmese who would come to dominate the colonial society, hovering above raised the burmese but below the British.

After Britain took over all of Burma, they continued to send tribute to China to avoid offending them but this unknowingly lowered the status they held in Chinese minds. 8 It was agreed at the burmah convention in 1886 that China would recognise Britain's occupation of Upper Burmah while Britain continued the burmese payment of tribute every ten years to beijing. 9 Administration edit The British controlled their new province through direct rule, making many changes to the previous governmental structure. The monarchy was abolished, king Thibaw sent into exile, and church and state separated. This was particularly harmful because the buddhist monks were dependent on the sponsorship of the monarchy.

After 25 years of peace, british and Burmese fighting started afresh and continued until the British occupied all of Lower Burma. The British were victorious in this war and as a result obtained access to the teak, oil, and rubies of northern myanmar. King Mindon tried to readjust to the thrust of imperialism. He enacted administrative reforms and made burma more receptive to foreign interests. But the British initiated the Third Anglo-burmese war, which lasted less than two weeks during november 1885.


The British government justified their actions by claiming that the last independent king of myanmar, Thibaw Min, was a tyrant and that he was conspiring to give france more influence in the country. British troops entered Mandalay on 28 november 1885. Thus, after three wars gaining various parts of the country, the British finally occupied all the area of present-day myanmar, making the territory a province of British India on 2 The British decided to annex all of Upper Burma as a colony and to make. The new colony of Upper Burma was attached to the burma Province on 26 February 1886. 7 Photograph of the arrival of British forces in Mandalay on 28 november 1885 at the end of the Third Anglo-burmese war. Photographer: hooper, willoughby wallace (18371912) Early British rule edit district courts and Public Offices, Strand road, rangoon, 1868. In this rendering, British officers take king Thibaw onto a steamship en route to exile in India.

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This led to the first Anglo-burmese war (182426). The British dispatched a large seaborne expedition that took rangoon without a fight in 1824. In Danuphyu, south of ava, the burmese general Maha bandula was apple killed and his armies routed. Myanmar was forced to cede Assam and other northern provinces. Treaty of Yandabo formally ended the first Anglo-burmese war, the longest and the most expensive war in the history of British India. Fifteen thousand European and Indian soldiers died, together with an unknown number of Burmese army and civilian casualties. 4 The campaign cost the British five million pounds sterling to 13 million pounds sterling (roughly.5 billion to 48 billion in 2006 us dollars) 5 that led to a severe economic crisis in British India in 1833. 6 In 1852, the second Anglo-burmese war was provoked by the British, who sought the teak forests in Lower Burma as well as a port between Calcutta and Singapore.

essays for myanmar students

first southeast Asian countries to adopt Buddhism, which went on to become the officially patronised religion. Before the British conquest and colonisation, the ruling Konbaung Dynasty practised a tightly centralised form of government. The king was the chief executive with the final say on all matters, but he could not make new laws and could only issue administrative edicts. The country had two codes of law, the rajathat and Dammathat, and the Hluttaw, the centre of government, was divided into three branches—fiscal, executive, and judicial. In theory the king was in charge of all of the Hluttaw but none of his orders got put into place until the Hluttaw approved them, thus checking his power. Further dividing the country, provinces were ruled by governors who were appointed by the Hluttaw and villages were ruled by hereditary headmen approved by the king. 2 Arrival of the British in Burma edit British naval force entered the harbour of Rangoon in may 1824 Conflict began between myanmar and the British when the konbaung Dynasty decided to expand into Arakan in the state of Assam, close to British-held Chittagong. After Burma's defeat of the kingdom of Arakan in 17841785, in 1823, burmese forces again crossed the frontier.

1, this arrangement lasted until 1937, when. Burma began to be administered separately by the. Burma Office under the, secretary of State for India and Burma. British rule was disrupted during the. Japanese occupation of much of the country during the. Burma achieved independence from, british rule on Burma is sometimes referred to as "the Scottish essays Colony due to the heavy role played by Scotsmen in colonising and running the country, one of the most notable being. Sir James Scott, and the Irrawaddy Flotilla company. Contents Burma before the British conquest edit because of its location, trade routes between China and India passed straight through the country, keeping Burma wealthy through trade, although self-sufficient agriculture was still the basis of the economy.

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British rule in legs Burma, also known as, british Burma, lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the. Anglo-burmese wars through the creation of, burma as a, province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, and finally independence. Various portions of Burmese territories, including. Arakan, tenasserim were annexed by the British after their victory in the. First Anglo-burmese war ; Lower Burma was annexed in 1852 after the. The annexed territories were designated the minor province (a Chief Commissionership British Burma, of British India in 1862. 1, after the, third Anglo-burmese war in 1885, Upper Burma was annexed, and the following year, the province. Burma in British India was created, becoming a major province (a lieutenant-governorship) in 1897.


Essays for myanmar students
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