British museums and galleries essay

british museums and galleries essay

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55 The first four women's colleges were established through the efforts of the Association for Promoting the higher Education of Women (AEW). Lady margaret Hall (1878) 56 was followed by somerville college in 1879; 57 the first 21 students from Somerville and Lady margaret Hall attended lectures in rooms above an Oxford baker's shop. 54 These first two colleges for women were followed by St Hugh's (1886 58 St Hilda's (1893) 59 and St Anne's College (1952). 60 All of these colleges later became coeducational, starting with Lady margaret Hall and St Anne's in 1979, 61 62 and finishing with St Hilda's, which began to accept male students in 2008. 63 In the early 20th century, oxford and Cambridge were widely perceived to be bastions of male privilege, 64 however the integration of women into Oxford moved forward during the first World War. In 1916 women were admitted as medical students on a par with men, and in 1917 the university accepted financial responsibility for women's examinations. 46 Lady margaret Hall, founded in 1878, was the first Oxford college to admit women On women became eligible for admission as full members of the university and were given the right to take degrees. 65 In 1927 the university's dons created a" that limited the number of female students to a quarter that of men, a ruling which was not abolished until 1957.

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Privy council decisions in the 20th century (e.g. The abolition of presentation compulsory daily worship, dissociation of the regius Professorship of Hebrew from clerical status, diversion of colleges' theological bequests to other purposes) loosened the link with traditional belief and practice. Furthermore, although the university's emphasis had historically been on classical knowledge, its curriculum expanded during the 19th century to include scientific and medical studies. Knowledge of Ancient Greek was required for admission until 1920, and Latin until 1960. The University of Oxford began to award doctorates in the first third of the 20th century. The first Oxford DPhil in mathematics was awarded in 1921. 53 The mid-20th century saw many distinguished continental scholars, displaced by nazism and communism, relocating to Oxford. The list of distinguished scholars at the University of Oxford is long and includes many who have made major contributions to politics, the sciences, medicine, and literature. More than 50 Nobel laureates and more than 50 world leaders have been affiliated with the University of Oxford. 23 Women's education edit The university passed a statute in 1875 allowing examinations for women at roughly undergraduate level; 54 for a brief period in the early 1900s, this allowed the " steamboat ladies " to receive ad eundem degrees from the University of Dublin.

50 Schools of "Natural Sciences" and "Law, and Modern History" were added in 1853. 50 by 1872, the last of these had split into "Jurisprudence" and "Modern History". Theology became the sixth honour school. 51 In addition to these. Honours degrees, the postgraduate bachelor of civil Law (B.C.L.) was, and still is, offered. 52 The mid-19th century saw the impact of the Oxford movement (18331845 led among others by the future cardinal John Henry newman. The influence of the reformed model of German universities reached Oxford via key scholars such as Edward bouverie pusey, benjamin Jowett and Max Müller. Administrative thesis reforms during the 19th century included the replacement of oral examinations with written entrance tests, greater tolerance for religious dissent, and the establishment of four women's colleges.

british museums and galleries essay

Museums and Public Spaces

For students, restrictions on entry should be dropped, and more opportunity given to poorer families. It called for an enlargement of the curriculum, with honours to be awarded in many new fields. Undergraduate scholarships should be open to all Britons. Graduate fellowships should be opened up to all members london of the University. It recommended that fellows be released from an obligation for ordination. Students were to be allowed to save money proposal by boarding in the city, instead of in a college. 48 49 The system of separate honour schools for different subjects began in 1802, with Mathematics and Literae humaniores.

During the first World War many undergraduates and Fellows joined the armed forces. By 1918 virtually all Fellows were in uniform, and the student population in residence was reduced to 12 per cent of what? 46 The University roll of Service records that, in total, 14,792 members of the university served in the war, with 2,716 (18.36) killed. 47 Not all the members of the university who served in the Great War were on the Allied side; there is a remarkable memorial to members of New College who served in the german armed forces, bearing the inscription, 'in memory of the men. During the war years the university buildings became hospitals, cadet schools and military training camps. 46 Reforms edit Two parliamentary commissions in 1852 issued recommendations for Oxford and Cambridge. Archibald Campbell tait, former headmaster of Rugby School, was a key member of the Oxford Commission; he wanted Oxford to follow the german and Scottish model in which the professorship was paramount. The commission's report envisioned a centralised university run predominantly by professors and faculties, with a much stronger emphasis on research. The professional staff should be strengthened and better paid.

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british museums and galleries essay

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He says, "few medical men, few solicitors, few persons intended for commerce or trade, ever dreamed of passing through a university career." he"s the Oxford University commissioners in 1852 stating: "The education imparted at Oxford was not such as to conduce to the advancement. It was impossible to collect some thousand or twelve hundred of the best young boreham man in England, to give them the opportunity of making acquaintance with one another, and full liberty to live their lives in their own way, without evolving in the best among. If the average undergraduate carried from University little or no learning, which was of any service to him, he carried from it a knowledge of men and respect for his fellows and himself, a reverence for the past, a code of honour for the present. He had enjoyed opportunities. Of intercourse with men, some of whom were certain to rise to the highest places in the senate, in the Church, or at the bar. He might have mixed with them in his sports, in his studies, and perhaps in his debating society; and any associations which he had this formed had been useful to him at the time, and might be a source of satisfaction to him in after. 42 Out of the students who matriculated in 1840, 65 were sons of professionals (34 were Anglican ministers).

After graduation 87 became professionals (59 as Anglican clergy). Out of the students who matriculated in 1870, 59 were sons of professionals (25 were Anglican ministers). After graduation 87 became professionals (42 as Anglican clergy). Jones argue that the rise of organised sport was one of the most remarkable and distinctive features of the history of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was carried over from the athleticism prevalent at the public schools such as Eton and Harrow. 45 At the start of 1914 the university housed about 3,000 undergraduates and about 100 postgraduate students.

37 The method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment ; enrolments fell and teaching was neglected. In 1636 38 William laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its governing regulations until the mid-19th century. Laud was also responsible for the granting of a charter securing privileges for the University Press, and he made significant contributions to the bodleian Library, the main library of the university. From the beginnings of the Church of England as the established church until 1866, membership of the church was a requirement to receive the ba degree from the university and " dissenters " were only permitted to receive the ma in 1871.

39 An engraving of Christ Church, Oxford, 1742 The university was a centre of the royalist party during the English civil War (16421649 while the town favoured the opposing Parliamentarian cause. 40 From the mid-18th century onwards, however, the University of Oxford took little part in political conflicts. Wadham College, founded in 1610, was the undergraduate college of Sir Christopher Wren. Wren was part of a brilliant group of experimental scientists at Oxford in the 1650s, the Oxford Philosophical Club, which included Robert boyle and Robert hooke. This group held regular meetings at Wadham under the guidance of the college's Warden, john Wilkins, and the group formed the nucleus which went on to found the royal Society. Modern period edit Students edit before reforms in the early 19th century the curriculum at Oxford was notoriously narrow and impractical. Sir Spencer Walpole, a historian of contemporary Britain and a senior government official, had not attended any university.

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28 Another founder, walter de merton, a lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life; 31 32 Merton College thereby became the model for such establishments at Oxford, 33 as well as at the University. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. 30 In 133334, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, lincolnshire, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward iii. 34 Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England, even in London; thus, Oxford and Cambridge had a duopoly, which was unusual in large western European countries. 35 36 Renaissance period edit In 1605 Oxford was still a walled city, but several colleges had been built outside the city walls (north is at the bottom on this map) The new learning of the renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century. Among university scholars of the period were william Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, and John Colet, the noted biblical revelation scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling especially at the University of douai.

british museums and galleries essay

The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry iii. 26 After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to cambridge, later forming the University of Cambridge. 13 27 The students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two " nations representing the north ( northerners or Boreales, who included the English people from north of the river Trent and the Scots ) and the south ( southerners or Australes. 28 29 In later centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, franciscans, carmelites and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. 30 At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were william of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University college, 30 and John Balliol, father of a future king of Scots ; Balliol was College bears his name.

ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world. 23 Sixty-nine nobel Prize winners, 4 fields Medalists, and 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford. Oxford is the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the world's oldest international scholarships. 24 Contents History edit see also: Timeline of Oxford founding edit balliol College one of the university's oldest constituent colleges The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. 25 teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being. 1 It grew quickly in 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. 1 The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190. The head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, and the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231.

Cambridge where they established what became the, university of Cambridge (see "town versus gown" ). 13, the two " ancient universities " are frequently jointly referred to as ". The history and salon influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. 14 15, the university is made up of a variety of institutions, including 38 constituent colleges and a full range of academic departments which are organised into four divisions. 16, all the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. 17, being a city university, it does not have a main campus and instead its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre. Most undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures, seminars, and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. As of September 2016, Oxford is ranked the world's 1 university by the world University rankings, and one of the world's best university by three other ranking tables.

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Coordinates : 514540N 11512W /.7611N.2534W /.7611; -1.2534. The, university of Oxford (formally, the Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford ) 11 is a collegiate research university located in, oxford, England. It has no known date of foundation, but there is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096, 1 making it the oldest university in the. English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation. 1 12, it grew rapidly from 1167 when. Henry ii banned English students presentation from attending the, university of Paris. 1, after disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east.

British museums and galleries essay
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